An M&V program in a LEED-CI project will follow the following approaches depending on the percentage of the building your space occupies:
Despite aiming high during design, LEED-certified buildings don’t always perform as well as expected. A measurement and verification (M&V), or submeteringSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.g., the heating subsystem of an HVAC system)., program not only can make building operators, owners, and tenants aware of performance issues and provide accountability for actual energy usage, but also locate the source of problems and identify poor design assumptions while providing a better overall sense of how the building’s systems are functioning.
The cost of an M&V program varies from one project to the next. Added costs come from designing and installing specific monitoring systems for larger and more complex buildings.
The “M&V provider” takes responsibility for developing the M&V plan in spaces that occupy 75% or more of the total building area. This role can be filled by the commissioning agent, energy modeler, mechanical engineer, project engineer, or a facilities manager. In spaces that are less than 75% of the total building area, the owner typically works with the tenant to confirm accurate lease language, and the engineer provides the submetering devices and controls.
The industry standard for M&V, both in the U.S. and internationally, is the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVPThe International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) provides best-practice protocol for measurement and verification of new construction. This standard is referenced in LEED's measurement and verification credits.), owned by the nonprofit Efficiency Valuation Organization. LEED has singled out Volume I of the IPMVP guidance as the basis of its requirements. Several organizations have published M&V guidelines based on IPMVP. Among them are ASHRAE, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and some utilities and states that fund energy-efficiency projects. Some organizations with M&V standards offer guidance in writing M&V plans, including sample language.
Determine if your project falls under Case 1 or Case 2:
The cost implications of this credit vary greatly from project to project. The main factors determining price are:
Determine if one or both of these options are most appropriate for your space type:
Your project can achieve a total of five points by pursuing both options.
Attempting both options is ideal. This way, you can submeter your actual energy use and pay only for this energy. It may even be possible to pay the utility directly.
If you choose to submeter your space, you must include lighting, plug loads, and process uses. You also need to submeter heating and cooling systems, unless your building already has a plan for prorated payments based on building square footage, or a central plan that serves many tenants.
You do not have to separately submeter your electrical systems—you could have a single metering system cover HVAC, lighting, and plug loads, for example. However, you must separately meter fuel oil, district or distributed energy, steam, chilled water, other fuels, and process water.
If you choose to pay for energy use separately from the base lease, you must negotiate a lease with the landlord that does not include utility bills in the base rent or as a yearly flat rate. You can choose to pay a prorated or proportional amount based on tenant space square footage; flat rates, however, are not compliant.
Installing submeters is not typically associated with high cost. It is more typically associated with cost savings, as tenants paying for their actual energy use tend to reduce their energy bills by including energy-efficient equipment and operating their space more efficiently.
Determine if IPMVP Volume I, Option B, C, or D will be most appropriate for your project design. (See table for details on the different options.)
Consider incorporating a building management system (BMS) into your space. This is not necessary for projects—installing simple, continuous metering can meet the credit requirements. A BMS can be a valuable facility component that records and verifies the energy and water use of a space. It provides central control of all identified systems while providing a user-friendly interface. In addition, a BMS can be used to pull out energy and water data throughout the day—typically at 15-minute intervals—to provide insight into peak usage and opportunities to make relevant changes.
A BMS records energy and water use data that can be revisited to compare to usage predicted during design. Using a BMS is also more convenient for the facilities manager.
There can be a high cost associated with the installation of a BMS (especially if your building was not planning on including one), but such systems can reduce operational costs and certainly provide the ability to identify high energy and water use during peak loads.
Include the development of an M&V plan in the Owner’s Project Requirements (OPR) for the commissioning credits EAp1 and EAc2.
Consider the impact of an M&V program on mechanical system design and space requirements. Keep in mind that your mechanical system must be capable of providing the necessary outputs for continuous metering. (The outputs are typically energy usage as kWs, BTUs or therms over a given period of time.) Whether an automated record from a BMS or a metered reading taken manually on a continual basis, the specifics of output metric and duration must be defined in your M&V plan.
The “M&V provider” develops the M&V plan. This role can be filled by the commissioning agent, energy modeler, mechanical engineer, project engineer, or a facilities manager.
Contract with the M&V provider early in the process so that system components and recommendations can be implemented seamlessly into systems rather than as add-ons.
If there is a building-wide BMS, individual tenants can connect their systems into the base building’s BMS to help keep costs lower.
Discuss as a team the operational energy savings and benefits of submetering or paying for actual energy consumption.
Determine if there are any incentives or rebates for submetering. This will help in planning your approach, and there may also be specific requirements you need to meet to earn those rebates.
In some districts, tenant submetering and charging by a third-party provider is prohibited. In others, utilities have rebates or incentives for projects providing tenant submetering. Check with your local district and utility for rebates and incentive—and if your local utility does not allow third-party submetering, see if it will install separate meters for tenants.
Discuss as a team the operational energy savings and benefits of implementing an M&V program for your project. Determine if M&V will contribute to your project’s energy reduction goals and system monitoring goals. Consider your project’s size and complexity, and whether you plan to run a whole-building energy model for EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance. Also think about how your building is likely to be operated. If an M&V program is not likely to be fully utilized, it may not be an appropriate investment.
Determine the extent of the M&V program based on the owner’s goals, the project type and function, the IPMVP requirements, and the required metering equipment. When determining the extent of the M&V program, establish the specific systems to be monitored.
Determine if there are any incentives or rebates for adding a BMS or for your M&V program.
Data to support this credit are typically taken from a combination of engineered calculations, utility information, meters, and submeters—and through temporary installation of additional sensors and data loggers, as needed.
You can gain useful information on energy consumption, and insight into energy reduction measures that need to be considered, by isolating and metering different energy conservation measures, such as those for HVAC system and lighting load. This is not required for the credit, however.
Introduce the M&V program early in the design process because it can affect the design of mechanical and electrical systems, the cost of the program, as well as the building management system. Designers should think ahead about how systems will be monitored. There is also inherent value in having your design team think early on about how the project building will operate.
Permanent submetering or a building management system (BMS) is not necessary—you can chose to have a combination of utility analysis, spot metering, and permanent metering instead. However, these methods do not provide as detailed information as a BMS, and may not help you determine the source of unanticipated energy consumption.
The majority of M&V programs submeter individual building systems such as lighting, heating, cooling, and plug loads.
An M&V program generally includes both sensors—which measure the energy volume and rate of flow, watts of energy draw, temperature, length of time, and other variables—and a central processor, which stores the collected information and helps building managers interpret it. A BMS typically includes the central processor needed for M&V, but not all of the sensors or additional programming to tally energy use and track patterns. However, adding these pieces to a BMS should pose little difficulty.
The highest return on investment for an M&V program occurs when the system operates over the life of the building. While the credit does not require a specific duration of the M&V effort, at least one year post occupancy is recommended.
If possible, include the facility operations staff in your discussion of financial benefits and operational requirements. Ideally, obtain their buy-in from the beginning of the project, as they will be key to realizing energy savings through M&V.
The cost implications for ECM isolation depend upon the number of meters installed and how complicated the metered mechanical and electrical systems are.
As the LEED Reference Guide states, the accuracy and cost of an M&V program is influenced by:
Studies find that, for retrofits, M&V costs average no more than 5% of the total project cost. Operational costs appear to be, on average, less than 10% of the savings associated with a retrofit.
Studies find that, for new construction the combined cost of the installed equipment and the first year of monitoring is less than 1% of the total project cost for buildings larger than 150,000 ft2, and less than 1.5% for smaller buildings.
A BMS typically includes some M&V capabilities. In buildings with these systems planned or already installed, the cost premium for M&V should be smaller than the percentages given above.
The M&V provider should work with the MEP to verify that all mechanical and electrical systems have the capability, and are designed, to allow metering and submetering. In addition, these systems must be designed to properly interface with any BMS or submetering installed. The M&V provider can verify that the M&V systems installed are capable of providing the information required for the credit.
The payoff of the investment in an M&V program comes while the building is in use. However, there is a danger that operations and maintenance staff will not be prepared to understand the significance of data trends reported by the submetering or measurement system, or won’t have the time to investigate anomalies that aren’t causing immediate problems. Consider how your building is likely to be operated when planning and designing your M&V program—commitment from the owner is the key to success.
Implementing M&V into your project after mechanical and electrical systems have been designed can cause this credit to become cost-prohibitive due to redesign costs.
Verify that process water is being submetered, along with lighting, plug loads, heating and cooling. Process water is the only water that needs to be submetered, water for restrooms, kitchens, and janitorial rooms doesn’t need to be submetered. Process water is the only water that needs to be submetered. Process water includes water used for cooling, heating, and domestic hot water. Water for tenant uses such as restrooms, janitorial purposes, and break rooms does not need to be submetered.
Create a baseline for comparison to actual measured data. The baseline depends on your building type, its complexity, and the IPMVP option you’ve chosen. Your baseline will be either the whole building or space, or system-specific, and in accordance with the extent of the M&V plan you previously developed. Projected baseline energy usage can be determined by using energy-efficiency standards or guidelines. If your project is a retrofit, the baseline will be the usage for systems in place before renovation began.
Determine the systems and equipment that need to be monitored and metered, as well as the number of meters required. (See the list of Commonly Monitored Items in the Documentation Toolkit.)
As stated in the LEED Reference Guide, the following items must be monitored:
If your project is attempting IPMVP, Option D, track the total energy consumption of your building. Since the energy model must be recalibrated, any variables that can influence consumption also need to be tracked. For example, you might track occupancy if it fluctuates. Also verify the savings from efficiency measures by tracking any data that gives clues to whether or not energy-saving strategies are working.
Your M&V or submetering program necessitates coordination with the mechanical and electrical engineers to verify that the control devices are able to provide the information needed for credit compliance.
Upload necessary information to LEED Online, including:
Be sure to include any necessary language on submetering or tenant payment plans in the lease agreement. This will be needed for credit documentation through LEED Online.
Determine predicted savings based on the final design estimate minus the baseline case. Calculate as monthly cost savings for the whole building or space, or by system. During this process, try to account for any varying factors that could affect the final design and baseline cases. These could include anything from weather patterns to occupancy levels.
Finalize the option your project will attempt under IPMVP Volume I (Option B, C, or D). (See the table above for details on the different options.)
The M&V provider writes the M&V plan, but if possible, involve the facility’s operational staff. The plan must provide the following (see a sample M&V plan in the Documentation Toolkit):
The owner’s goals and IPMVP guidelines should drive your M&V plan, which should specify the systems to be submetered, those being spot-metered, and how you will accomplish this. Your plan also explains energy and water conservation measures that will be implemented, how the energy end-use will be predicted and measured, and how the M&V information will be used, for example, to adjust building operations to reduce energy use.
Your plan should:
Variable loads (such as dimming controls) can be profiled with short-term measurements that determine a load value pegged against another variable point that can be measured or accurately estimated over time. Also, if your project does not submeter plug loads, you’ll need to interpolate data in a similar manner.
If applicable, your M&V plan should specify submetering sensor locations, sensors requiring trending, sampling rates, required energy model outputs, and how measured data will be compared to the energy model. Also include how loads are arranged and grouped in electric panels. (It is best, for example, not to mix power, lighting, and HVAC equipment loads within individual panels.)
If you are attempting this credit through Option D, energy modeling and recalibration of the energy model will incur additional fees for your project—more if your design team did not use an energy model to do the actual design work for the energy optimization of lighting and HVAC.
Install the M&V submeter devices, BMS, or other measurement mechanisms and commission them (for EAp1) to verify functional accuracy. Address any issues that are found.
With proper planning, installation of the M&V system should be fairly straightforward. However, depending on your system and the experience of your subcontractors, specialized contractors may be needed. (See Resources for information on qualified practitioners.)
Implement your M&V program. If applicable, track and archive trending data with utility meter and energy submeter systems, as defined in your M&V plan.
Continue to reevaluate ongoing energy savings and correct any deviations, in line with the timeframe identified in your M&V plan.
Meters and submeters should be recalibrated per manufacturers’ recommendations.
Encourage the operations team to focus not just on keeping the building running, but on running it at optimal efficiency.
Recording any upgrades, or operational and maintenance changes, will help you understand post-installation energy use.
Measurement and submetering have always proven to be useful for smooth operations and can be used to maximize energy savings and optimize the functioning of all controls.
Determine the actual energy savings of the whole building or your space, or all building systems, after occupancy. You’ll need to adjust both baseline and actual energy performance based on changes in weather, occupancy, and other variables that affect energy performance. The facilities manager and M&V provider should determine these variables and adjust baseline and actual energy performance accordingly.
If energy use discrepancies exist between projected use and actual use, your project team needs to identify the cause and follow your M&V plan for corrective action. Examples of common discrepancies are:
If applicable, program the BMS to provide monthly reports as required by your M&V plan.
If your project is attempting IPMVP, Option D, 12 months of data from the metered categories are used to calibrate the computer simulation model. Your M&V plan needs to demonstrate your system’s ability to identify specific problem areas if discrepancies occur between modeled and metered data.
The payback period for an M&V program depends on the initial cost of additional meters and whether the system identifies inefficiencies that wouldn’t have been found otherwise. Some fixes may be substantial enough to pay for the metering system. After your BMS or submetering system has been installed, true return depends on the commitment of the owner and operations staff to making the best use of the system.
Because your M&V program monitors actual building operations over time, M&V procedures can lead to valuable operational savings by uncovering building system design, installation, and control issues not caught by fundamental, or even additional, commissioning.
Recalibrating the energy model to match the actual energy use of tenant spaces will add some cost to your project. Recalibration should be done 10 to 12 months after occupancy, and the added cost should be minor if it only involves something like adjusting occupancy hours. However, note that unforeseen complexities can drive up these costs.
Excerpted from LEED 2009 for Commercial Interiors
To provide for the ongoing accountability and optimization of tenant energy and water consumption performance over time.
Complete 1 or more of the following:
Develop and implement a measurement and verification (M&V) plan consistent with Option D: Calibrated Simulation (Savings Estimation Method 2) as specified in the International Performance Measurement & Verification Protocol (IPMVPThe International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) provides best-practice protocol for measurement and verification of new construction. This standard is referenced in LEED's measurement and verification credits.) Volume III: Concepts and Options for Determining Energy Savings in New Construction, April 2003.
The M&V period must cover at least 1 year of post-construction occupancy.
Provide a process for corrective action if the results of the M&V plan indicate that energy savings are not being achieved.
Develop and implement a measurement and verification (M&V) plan consistent with Option B: Energy Conservation Measure Isolation, as specified in the International Performance Measurement & Verification Protocol (IPMVP) Volume III: Concepts and Options for Determining Energy Savings in New Construction, April 2003.
Provide a process for corrective action if the results of the M&V plan indicate that energy savings are not being achieved.
For projects with an area that constitutes less than 75% of the total building area, tenant spaceTenant space is the area within the LEED project boundary. For more information on what can and must be in the LEED project boundary see the Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance. Note: tenant space is the same as project space. is submetered and has a direct pay clause in their lease for energy actually used instead of on a square foot basis. For projects with an area that constitutes 75% or more of the total building area, model the energy and water systems to predict savings. Design the project with equipment to measure energy and water performance. Draft a M&V plan to apply during building operations that compares predicted savings to those actually achieved in the field.
IPMVPThe International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) provides best-practice protocol for measurement and verification of new construction. This standard is referenced in LEED's measurement and verification credits. is the standard upon which the LEED M&V requirements are based. Use these documents should be used in designing the M&V system and plan.
These M&V guidelines are written for federal buildings but could be helpful for many projects.
This article discusses the usefulness of M&V, including examples of problems that M&V systems have been able to identify.
The Energy Valuation Organization, in conjunction with the Association of Energy Engineers, offers an M&V professional certification program. The Association of Energy Engineers holds training seminars for those preparing to take the certification exam and anyone else interested in learning the fundamentals of M&V and working with IPMVPThe International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) provides best-practice protocol for measurement and verification of new construction. This standard is referenced in LEED's measurement and verification credits..
The Measurement and Verification (M&V) plan template shown here is based on Option D: Calibrated Simulation.
The following links take you to the public, informational versions of the dynamic LEED Online forms for each CI-2009 EA credit. You'll need to fill out the live versions of these forms on LEED
Online for each credit you hope to earn.
Version 4 forms (newest):
Version 3 forms:
These links are posted by LEEDuser with USGBC's permission. USGBC has certain usage restrictions for these forms; for more information, visit LEED Online and click "Sample Forms Download."
Documentation for this credit can be part of a Design Phase submittal.
This Measurement and Verification (M&V) plan sample follows Option D: Calibrated Simulation.
Complete documentation for achievement of EAc3 on a LEED-CI 2009 project.
If a client owns all of the interior space, then I assume that they would obtain this credit, since they pay all of their energy and water bills. Would I be correct?
No. It sounds like they would fall under Case 2 and have to do a M&V Plan.
LI #10418 allows LEED-NC v2009 projects to meeting the M&V credit by meeting LEED v4 enhanced commissioningThe process of verifying and documenting that a building and all of its systems and assemblies are planned, designed, installed, tested, operated, and maintained to meet the owner's project requirements., monitoring-based commissioning, and the advanced energy metering credit. Is anyone aware of a similar ACP for LEED-CI v2009 projects? My project is not eligible for this credit since we occupy 100% of the building but are not doing an energy model, so we cannot pursue Option D for the M&V plan. We aren't eligible for Option B either and basically out of luck for meeting this credit. I would imagine this LI applies to CI as well, but the formal language does not address it.
I don't think it applies to CI since the credits are so different. You might try something similar in approach and submit an interpretation to find out for sure.
I certainly don't see a substitution on the list.
Does the cold water feed to tenant spaces need to be metered for this credit. Cold water consumption does not feature in the energy model.
Thanks Marcus. As a follow on question if a CI Project has no water meters installed as a result of a previous Core and Shell project could we run into difficultly in terms of CI PLF 1 - Minimum Project Requirements - MPR 6. At the minute our LEED scope is Core & Shell only however I need to ensure that future tenants are not restricted should they wish to achieve CI certification themselves. We don't wish to install water meters for every tenant spaceTenant space is the area within the LEED project boundary. For more information on what can and must be in the LEED project boundary see the Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance. Note: tenant space is the same as project space. if not required by LEED. I would value your expert opinion.
See the special exception to this MPR for certain projects in the Supplimental Guidance to the MPRs - http://www.usgbc.org/resources/leed-2009-mpr-supplemental-guidance-revis...
I'm working on a LEED-CI project occupying 100% of the tenant spaceTenant space is the area within the LEED project boundary. For more information on what can and must be in the LEED project boundary see the Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance. Note: tenant space is the same as project space.. The project is complying with appropriate zoning and controls for EAc1.3 and therefore not doing an energy model, making them ineligible for Option D M&V plan. At the same time, this is not a retrofit but a first time build-out. Are these tenant improvement projects allowed to pursue Option B?
Maybe depending on the energy efficiency measures (EEM) implemented. If you do pursue Option B you will need a strategy for determining the impacts of the potential interactive effects of multiple EEMs. This option is typically for projects with EEMs that can easily be isolated from one another. Examples of interactive EEMs are building envelop and lighting since they impact the energy use of heating, cooling, fans, pumps, etc.
I see, so for example if we are including daylight controls and automatic shading devices, that will interact with energy used for cooling and therefore make it difficult to separate the EEMs. If you can't separate them then is it even worth looking into it further?
Thank you, Marcus.
Yep. That is the big difference between Options D and B. It is why you typically need an energy model instead of spreadsheet calculations too. I would not say that it absolutely can't be done but it would be very difficult.
Does anyone know if the Exemplary PerformanceIn LEED, certain credits have established thresholds beyond basic credit achievement. Meeting these thresholds can earn additional points through Innovation in Design (ID) or Innovation in Operations (IO) points. As a general rule of thumb, ID credits for exemplary performance are awarded for doubling the credit requirements and/or achieving the next incremental percentage threshold. However, this rule varies on a case by case basis, so check the credit requirements. option for BD+C given for sharing energy data via a Third-party template is available for ID+C? I haven't seen anything about it either way.
I don't think so. There is no option for it in the forms for the CI M&V credit and the addenda about the extra point only seems to apply to BD+C projects - http://www.usgbc.org/leed-interpretations?keys=100000772
I didn't realize that it had come in the form of an interpretation. That's perfect. Thank you!
Our tenant will have sub-meters installed on the lighting and HVAC electrical panels on each floor of their tenant spaceTenant space is the area within the LEED project boundary. For more information on what can and must be in the LEED project boundary see the Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance. Note: tenant space is the same as project space.. They will not however pay their electrical bill directly they will have a process of reconciliation with the Owner as an annual process. This reconciliation therefore provides incentive for the tenant to conserve energy.
This seems to satisfy the intent of the credit but not necessarily as clean on the tracking side. Has anyone tried this? And if so any tips to create the argument and M&V Plan to satisfy the credit requirements?
It is not clear whether you are pursuing case 1 or case 2 (tenant occupies more or less than 75% of the building) and thus it is difficult to provide a useful answer.
If you are pursuing case 1 you should be OK, but there are a few details which you will need to cover. The credit requires that all energy be covered, thus if you are heating with gas or the building delivers hot/cold water to your space for localized heating/cooling then these costs must also be covered. You do not need to sub-meter these, but the tenant must pay a reconciled pro-rata cost of the total usage.
You should also cover how the plug load is measured and costs recouped.
Our TI project is 4 floors of a large building, so <75% of the total building. The other floors (over 75% of building) are separately pursuing LEED-CI and creating an M&V plan for their project. Because the owner is responsible for both projects, can the smaller tenant project elect to pursue the M&V plan by using the whole-building approach? Will this only earn us 2 points or could we potentially earn 5 points using Case 2?
Maybe. I would submit a project specific CIRCredit Interpretation Ruling. Used by design team members experiencing difficulties in the application of a LEED prerequisite or credit to a project. Typically, difficulties arise when specific issues are not directly addressed by LEED information/guide.
My question is why would you want to do so? Whole building M&V is way more expensive to implement. If you do the submeteringSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.g., the heating subsystem of an HVAC system). and arrange to pay your own utility bills you can get 5 points under Case 1 for this credit at a farFloor-area ratio is the density of nonresidential land use, exclusive of parking, measured as the total nonresidential building floor area divided by the total buildable land area available for nonresidential structures. For example, on a site with 10,000 square feet (930 square meters) of buildable land area, an FAR of 1.0 would be 10,000 square feet (930 square meters) of building floor area. On the same site, an FAR of 1.5 would be 15,000 square feet (1395 square meters), an FAR of 2.0 would be 20,000 square feet (1860 square meters), and an FAR of 0.5 would be 5,000 square feet (465 square meters). lower cost assuming you were going to pay for the utilities no matter what (directly or indirectly).
The project is not paying utility bills separately so we would only be eligible for 2 points under EAc3. The rest of the owner-occupied floors are developing an M&V plan so we figured the smaller project scope might be able to comply through this option if the M&V plan is expanded to include those floors.
The time and effort to do so will be fairly costly when following Option D in the IPMVPThe International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) provides best-practice protocol for measurement and verification of new construction. This standard is referenced in LEED's measurement and verification credits.. Writing and implementing a M&V Plan will require that their whole building energy model include all of the systems in your space. What you need to find out from USGBC is if they can do whole building M&V can it be counted for both project without separating the energy use from both projects? If not it gets more complicated. The model would have to be set up to separate their space and your space. You would likely need to submeterSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy or water use within a building attributable to specific end uses such as tenant spaces, or subsystems such as the heating component of an HVAC system. all of the significant energy ends uses in your space separately.
The cost of Option D M&V in general is too high to justify for most projects. The cost is both for the submeteringSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.g., the heating subsystem of an HVAC system). which needs to be installed in the building and then implementing the M&V Plan post-occupancy. For most buildings the costs are typically in the tens of thousands of dollars.
Negotiate to pay the utility bills. It will be farFloor-area ratio is the density of nonresidential land use, exclusive of parking, measured as the total nonresidential building floor area divided by the total buildable land area available for nonresidential structures. For example, on a site with 10,000 square feet (930 square meters) of buildable land area, an FAR of 1.0 would be 10,000 square feet (930 square meters) of building floor area. On the same site, an FAR of 1.5 would be 15,000 square feet (1395 square meters), an FAR of 2.0 would be 20,000 square feet (1860 square meters), and an FAR of 0.5 would be 5,000 square feet (465 square meters). cheaper and provide more value to the owner IMO.
We are working on a low-rise office building and pursuing LEED CS v2009 for the base-building and LEED CI v2009 for at least one of the tenant spaces. These are separate projects that are being designed simultaneously. I have a couple of questions about the requirements and strategies for tenant sub-metering.
1. The tenant lease spaces will only have electricity, they will not have gas, steam or chilled water. To satisfy the metering portion of LEED CI v2009 EAc3 is is acceptable to provide only a single electric meter for each tenant, or do we need to separately meter lights and receptacle loads?
2. Are we required to meter the HVAC used by the tenant spaces? The building is served by 3 variable volume, CHW AHU1.Air-handling units (AHUs) are mechanical indirect heating, ventilating, or air-conditioning systems in which the air is treated or handled by equipment located outside the rooms served, usually at a central location, and conveyed to and from the rooms by a fan and a system of distributing ducts. (NEEB, 1997 edition)
2.A type of heating and/or cooling distribution equipment that channels warm or cool air to different parts of a building. This process of channeling the conditioned air often involves drawing air over heating or cooling coils and forcing it from a central location through ducts or air-handling units. Air-handling units are hidden in the walls or ceilings, where they use steam or hot water to heat, or chilled water to cool the air inside the ductwork.'s on the roof. These AHU's are ducted down through the building in separate chases but are not dedicated or zoned to any particular floor or tenant space. The conditioned air from the roof-mounted AHU's is distributed to all the various zones and spaces through a mix of fan-powered and VAVVariable Air Volume (VAV) is an HVAC conservation feature that supplies varying quantities of conditioned (heated or cooled) air to different parts of a building according to the heating and cooling needs of those specific areas. terminal boxes. With this type of air distribution, how can we meter HVAC energy use at the tenant level(if this is even required)?
The requirements for this credit in CS and CI are different but complementary.
1. You do not need to separately meter lights and receptacle loads to achieve this credit. Each tenant (pursuing LEED CI certification) will need to have an electric submeterSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy or water use within a building attributable to specific end uses such as tenant spaces, or subsystems such as the heating component of an HVAC system.. Note that if the building intends to pursue LEED EBOMEBOM is an acronym for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance, one of the LEED 2009 rating systems. certification the tenant submeters are not sufficient - EBOM requires submeteringSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.g., the heating subsystem of an HVAC system). on a system level and thus wants lighting and plug loads separately metered.
2. Submetering of HVAC energy is not required (although it is one way to meet the credit requirements. The credit requires that the tenants pay the ACTUAL COST of thermal energy, which can be pro-rated on a per square meter basis. It is important to demonstrate (in the lease) that - in the event the tenant pays a fixed amount monthly for utility services - these payments are reconciled to actual costs on a regular (typically annual) basis. This provides an incentive for the tenant to reduce consumption (which a fixed payment would not.)
We have a LEED-CI project occupying one floor of a building, but the project space will be occupied by multiple tenants. Does "tenant" in this credit require each of the multiple tenants to have submeters or is one submeter monitoring the entire floor sufficient enough for the credit? The owner owns the entire building as well.
Typically a CI project is undertaken by a single tenant related to the fit out of a particular space. Is this like a co-working arrangement or something like that were people pay a fee for some work space and amenities? What is the nature of the multiple tenants? Do they each have separate, walled off spaces? A bit more information might help.
Sure, so its a GSA project so they will share a common corridor and bathrooms, but all three agencies will have their tenant spaceTenant space is the area within the LEED project boundary. For more information on what can and must be in the LEED project boundary see the Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance. Note: tenant space is the same as project space. essentially. Its all under one scope of work, one construction contract. Does this help? The tenant spaces are relatively small, and all this work is actually only for just part of a floor.
The intent of this is to have the tenant pay for the utility bills so they have an incentive to make some improvements. For LEED you are required to have a meter for the tenant spaceTenant space is the area within the LEED project boundary. For more information on what can and must be in the LEED project boundary see the Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance. Note: tenant space is the same as project space. defined as the scope of work for the project. So one meter satisfies that aspect. You might want to make sure the project meets the MPRs relative to the separate tenant spaces.
Thank you, Marcus. I did some research a while ago because it doesn't fit perfectly into LEED-CI as one registered project or even individual registered projects. So, it seemed applicable to register as one project going by the MPR exception to the definition of "complete interior space." The projects meets the conditions listed.
Where this credit is sought under commercial interiors, yet the landlord systems do not have all the metering points, would the tenant be expected to provide landlord metering in order to seek this credit.
Does constant and variable motor loads refer to the larger large Lift / elevator motors or does it also mean small fan coil unit fan motors.
Air and water economizers. I believe an air economiser is like a mixing box. What would be an example of a water economizer.
Someone has to provide the metering infrastructure needed to earn the credit. It does not make any difference who provides it.
Regarding the motor loads - hard to answer this question without any context. This issue does not appear directly related to this credit. In general large and small motors can have a constant or variable load.
Air economizerAn economizer is a device used to make building systems more energy efficient. Examples include HVAC enthalpy controls, which are based on humidity and temperature. is typically bringing in outside air do do free cooling when conditions allow. Water side economizer can be several things using extra heat to preheat domestic hot water, bypassing a cooling tower, etc.
Thanks Marcus. The LEED CI 2009 manual I have states that constant and variable motor loads should be continuously metered. We could have 40 fan coil units serving a floor over 5 floors. Just wondering if these fans would need to be metered as we would normally not provide this as standard.
Which Case and option are you pursuing?
Case 2 (>75% of the total building area) and we are looking at pursuing Option D calibrated model. Just need to know if all fans need to be metered.
OK. While the Reference Guide does refer to continuous metering, the IPMVPThe International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) provides best-practice protocol for measurement and verification of new construction. This standard is referenced in LEED's measurement and verification credits. does not require it, so there is a conflict. The M&V Plans submitted should be basically the same as those submitted for NC projects. Your M&V Plan should include a thorough description of how you will be gathering the data you need to calibrate the energy model. Often the actual energy use for the fans for this type of unit are derived from data collected by the building automation system. If constant speed fans you can just measure run time and get the fan motor BHP. If variable you will need to measure % and run time to determine energy use. So the fans do not need to me metered directly but the Plan should specify how the energy use of the fans will be determined to enable the calibration of the energy model.
Hi we have a LEED CI project that is served by an emergency back-up generator that serves multiple floors. Is it really a requirement to meter emergency back-up generator fuel?
If so would it also require power metering to measure proportion of power from our level?
Seems like overkill and not the intent of the credit. Surely records of the fuel consumption of the generator should be ok.
I think emergency generator fuel does not even need to be included assuming the generator is just tested periodically and run in emergency situations only. Not sure if this is written anywhere.
USGBC review comments for our project came back and the technical advice for EAc3 is as follows:
As the project registration date (10/30/2013) is after 04/01/2012, provide a copy of the M&V plan consistent with Option D or Option B.
Does anyone know where the 04/01/2012 is quoted? I am at a loss at this review comment and why we would be asked to use Option B, an inferior option to C which we have submitted. Thank you in advance for your help.
There was either an addenda or interpretation that eliminated Option C from this credit. The date of the change was effective 4-1-12. You would have to find the addenda or interpretation to see the date of the change.
We were trying to pursue this credit by developing and implementing a M&V plan following option C from the IPMVPThe International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) provides best-practice protocol for measurement and verification of new construction. This standard is referenced in LEED's measurement and verification credits., but after reading some comments, it seems that this path was removed.
I can not follow option B, since most EEM interact among each other, therefore, they may not be isolated.
The only path left would be option D, but we don't have energy simulation results to compare with. The owners currently operate in a slightly smaller building, and they are now moving across the street to a larger complex, renovating lighting, HVAC, refrigeration equipment, etc; and pursing the LEED CI certification. Could we consider their previous energy usage as the baseline case, making the proper adjustment for the increase in sf? Then, after one year of energy usage data during operation, they may compare themselves to their previous usage and evaluate additional improvements on a month to month basis.
This guys are high energy users, and they want to know exactly how much each end use consumes to evaluate their performance and continuously improve; it seems unreasonable that there is no path for this case without the energy model.
Thank you very much, I appreciate the help.
What you are proposing is a simplified version of Option C which was removed.
If "they want to know exactly how much each end use consumes to evaluate their performance and continuously improve" - they won't be able to do that by comparing previous bills to adjusted current ones. A energy model could be useful fore achieving this aim.
The problem is that there is no budget for an energy model...
They wouldn't be able to compare their energy usage with the simulation results, but they would be able to monitor their consumption and evaluate any operational change or under performance, which is also very valuable.
So basically, if you can't isolate EEM, the only way to earn this credit is by including an energy model and then calibrate it during operation?
Monitoring energy use certainly can provide value. It is not enough to earn this credit however. In a Case 2 scenario that is what it takes to earn the credit.
I have not looked to see if the v4 version of this credit can be used by 2009 projects as a substitute. If so the IPMVPThe International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) provides best-practice protocol for measurement and verification of new construction. This standard is referenced in LEED's measurement and verification credits. stuff was deleted and it is all about installing meters on energy end uses.
We've a LEED CS certified building in which the Tenant will occupy almost 100% of the total area, so we will fall in CASE 2.
We obtained the CS certification EAc5.2 credit and we've submeters which monitor Lighting, HVAC and receptacle equipment (only for common spaces) consumption.
Our intent is to pursue for CI EAc3 with option B, but it is unclear to us if we need to install dedicated submeters or not, and, most of all, what we need to include in the M&V plan in order to obtain the credit.
Thank you in advance for your help.
Option B is almost always impossible to apply to a whole building. If you have any interactive energy efficiency strategies like building envelope or lighting improvements you can't use Option B.
Option C is typically by farFloor-area ratio is the density of nonresidential land use, exclusive of parking, measured as the total nonresidential building floor area divided by the total buildable land area available for nonresidential structures. For example, on a site with 10,000 square feet (930 square meters) of buildable land area, an FAR of 1.0 would be 10,000 square feet (930 square meters) of building floor area. On the same site, an FAR of 1.5 would be 15,000 square feet (1395 square meters), an FAR of 2.0 would be 20,000 square feet (1860 square meters), and an FAR of 0.5 would be 5,000 square feet (465 square meters). the easiest one to apply assuming you have access to a reasonable data set of comparable building energy use.
Whether you need to install submeters in the remaining spaces depends on the option you choose and the cost impacts. In a larger building Options B and D would likely requires some whole building submeteringSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.g., the heating subsystem of an HVAC system). of building system like you have done in the common spaces. You always have the option of gathering the data through other means (by hand and with short term trending devices) but those come with a very high labor cost in many cases.
The IPMVPThe International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) provides best-practice protocol for measurement and verification of new construction. This standard is referenced in LEED's measurement and verification credits. tells you the required content of the M&V Plan for each Option.
Please not that Option C referenced in my comment above is no longer available for this credit.
for example, the project is a large building with a commercial spaces on each floor that will be sold. the building is going for LEED-CS, but when the future owner of the commercial comes in, how can they achieve all 5 points under Case 1? They will have electricity utility meter in their own space, but they will own the space and will not be leasing space from the developer. Are they eligible to get that additional 3 points?
I think so. The issue of ownership is not really important. That they pay their own bills and therefore have an incentive to make improvements over time is what is important.
Hello, we are doing a LEED CI project for a large tenant occupying multiple floors. We will pursue Case 1 (less than 75% of area) - submeteringSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.g., the heating subsystem of an HVAC system).. However, the base buildingThe base building includes elements such as the structure, envelope, and building-level mechanical systems, such as central HVAC, and materials and products installed in the project (e.g., flooring, casework, wall coverings). landload will not allow us to access their BMS information which will require the tenant with come up with their own dashboard to monitor usage. We are intending to put meters on each floor, metering electricity use for overall electricity load (minus lighting panel to get plug load data). Can someone recommend a dashboard for this purpose? Thanks.
In our project the tenant pays a lump sum for thermal energy use, but pays for electricity based on actual consumption. We therefore cannot achieve the 3 points. We currently do not have sub-meters installed to measure the thermal energy.
My question relates the the requirement of the sub-meters to "record" energy use. Can this be done manually or is it necessary for the meter to record the use? If we install thermal meters to get the two points we will still not pay for actual use, so there is little motivation to read these meters regularly.
I think a manual read would qualify.
I guess my question would be why you would install meters you never intend to use? This is not in alignment with the credit intent and frankly sounds like a point hunting exercise with no effect. If I were the client I would ask why you are wasting my money. Find something else to do in LEED that actually adds value, not just points.
Marcus - You're entirely correct. I'm actually not recommending this to the client (because it is a waste of money) but in our report I want to be clear regarding what is possible.
Thanks for the quick response!
Is there are is an initial fee that must be paid upfront when the tenant signs the lease to pay for energy use? If there is this fee, how much does that typically cost?
I am not aware of any fees that would get paid beyond the cost of the energy. In most areas you cannot make any profit on the energy use as this makes you a utility which are regulated by the state.
Any other fees are between the tenant and the owner.
Hi, we are working on getting the verbiage of the lease correct. Has anyone had experience with the monthly bill for the tenant having the energy cost and the base rent broken into 2 line items, yet the Owner has the account with the utility company? It seems to meet the intent of the informing tenants of their energy consumption.
That should work assuming the submeteringSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.g., the heating subsystem of an HVAC system). is set up to do so.
I have a tenant renovation project occupying 1 story of an existing 10 story building (<75% of building area) in which the central HVAC is comprised of constant volume water-cooled self contained units serving interior zones and water-cooled console style heat pumps at the perimeter. The heat pumps are connected to the base buildingThe base building includes elements such as the structure, envelope, and building-level mechanical systems, such as central HVAC, and materials and products installed in the project (e.g., flooring, casework, wall coverings). condenser water system through local condenser water risers located at each column along the building perimeter. Is it necessary to provide BTUA unit of energy consumed by or delivered to a building. A Btu is an acronym for British thermal unit and is defined as the amount of energy required to increase the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit, at normal atmospheric pressure. Energy consumption is expressed in Btu to allow for consumption comparisons among fuels that are measured in different units. meters at each condenser water riser tap to the perimeter heat pumps (essentially two meters per column bayA bay is a component of a standard, rectilinear building design. It is the open area defined by a building element such as columns or a window. Typically, there are multiple identical bays in succession.) or is it sufficient to meter these units only for electricity?
The Reference Guide is pretty clear on this issue. You will need an electric meter. SubmeteringSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.g., the heating subsystem of an HVAC system). related to central heating and cooling is required unless it is included in prorated building payment for a central plant serving multiple tenants.
I am working on a project which is considering pursuing CI 2009 EAc3 Option B. I am wondering if continuous metering is required for this path or if spot metering would be acceptable. I know that continuous metering has been removed in the redline version of CI but I was of the opinion that spot metering would be more applicable to the calibrated simulation option (Option D).
Another point, on this project major changes are being made to the building's central plant (basically everything to do with the central cooling plant is being replaced), lighting and space layouts. Essentially everything is changing completely excep the building envelope. Is option B even applicable in this case? The design team is pushing for option B because they want to reduce costs and avoid doing a full calibrated model but it is my opinion that given the number of changes the "retrofit isolation" option isn't applicable.
No metering of any kind is required under Option B or D of the IPMVPThe International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) provides best-practice protocol for measurement and verification of new construction. This standard is referenced in LEED's measurement and verification credits.. Both submeters and spot measurements could be used under either option.
Sounds to me like Option B does not apply since you will be implementing energy saving strategies that have interactive effects. Under CI you are required to show some lighting savings so this end use alone can't be isolated as it impacts heat, cooling, fans, etc.
our Project is LEED CI v3
at credit EA c3, what is process uses ( electric) and process uses (fuel) ??????
another question , at our tenant spaceTenant space is the area within the LEED project boundary. For more information on what can and must be in the LEED project boundary see the Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance. Note: tenant space is the same as project space. we have boiler fuel operated to supply under floor heating and domestic hot water , what type sub meters we need to measure the energy consumption ?????
Process loads are those that are not regulated by ASHRAE 90.1 such as plug loads, gas cooking, etc.
Which case are you pursuing? For Case 1 the Reference Guide is pretty clear about what needs to be submetered, see Table 2 on page 191. The type of meter depends on the fuel source. What is the boiler fuel?
We have a CI project which is in theory occupying 100% of a completely new non LEED, Core & Shell building. As a result we were intent on not doing an Energy Model and instead only completing the prescriptive requirements. As this is a new building, are we able to complete Option C since we will not have any existing utility information for the building or do we need assume Option D is our only option here. Thanks
Looks like you could do Case 2 Option C in addition to the submeteringSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.g., the heating subsystem of an HVAC system). of the required end uses and earn the credit..
I have a similar project and our plan is to do Option C but need to ask a couple questions of clarification.
1) The updated reference guide language indicates for Case 2, Options B or D can be pursued but the credit template still allows me to select Option C as a standard we can follow. Is Option C still an option of compliance though not listed in the reference guide?
2) If Option C can be followed, does that same list still need to be submetered with data reporting separately to each one? or can it be measured on a single meter and reported together? Option C data will be compared to whole building data that is grouped into typical utility energy sources and therefore more detailed metering doesn't seem necessary.
3) If individual reporting is required for systems Can any metering be excluded? We are a tenant in a building that already had AHUs on the roof and therefore trying to meter items related to this existing building owner piece of equipment is proving to be difficult and costly.
4) If meters are no longer required to be continuous, what is the new frequency of the reporting required? Option C appears to state that monthly data is sufficient.
I looked through the addenda to the Reference Guide and Option C has been removed. Apparently there was a conflict between the RG and the rating system language so the RG was changed to accurately reflect the balloted credit language which did not include Option C.
So Option C is no longer an option. Sounds like the credit form did not catch up yet. Sorry of the incorrect advice earlier this year.
I am trying to think through an alternative compliance. Please humor me.
So I am working on a building where the tenant owns and occupies the entire building. They are renovating 2 entire floors as part of their LEED project. If it goes well, they would like to use that as a template to renovate the rest of the floors, little by little and gain more LEED certifications. They do not have sub-meters installed to measure exactly how much electricity is used on the two floors being renovated.
Since they pay for all of the electricity in the building based on the building meter, would we be able to say that the tenant pays for the energy used and achieve 3 points for this credit? Obviously we would not have a lease agreement to upload, instead we would upload a statement that it is owner occupied.
Also, while they do not completely sub-meter the two floors, they do have a special sustainability dashboard, that monitors electricity from a campus of buildings and it can separate out this project building and show building occupants how much energy is being used compared to the previous year. It shows graphs of each fuel as well as a monthly graph of EUI for the current and previous year. It also graphs water consumption for the building. Could this gain us the other two points?
My thought is that the intent of the credit is satisfied - occupants pay for energy used and have a way of knowing how much energy is being used on a building level and can see the impact from one year to the next of any energy saving measures employed. Occupants are able to see consumption performance over time. The output of the dashboard is distributed to all occupants of the building.
Since the building is owner occupied there is no tenant really and installing additional metering makes no sense. The intent is to encourage tenants to have an incentive to address their energy and water use. This incentive already exists in this case. So they really are not doing anything as part of this CI project to address the issue further.
In my opinion what you suggest would not earn any of the points.
I'm going to disagree with you here Marcus. If they fall under Case 1, they should get the three points for energy costs paid by the tenant.
We see this situation a lot on university campuses, where a single floor of a larger building is being renovated. I believe there is actually a ruling supporting this.
I agree that the dashboard is not a substitute for sub-metering, so they would not get the two other points.
Does anyone know where the a ruling may make mention of a tenant owning the building? We have a project where the owner only finished out a portion of the building, which is pursuing certification. I've scoured the LEED interpretations and haven't found anything.
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