This prerequisite can be a major hurdle for LEED-CI projects. When challenges arise, it’s most often because project teams don’t review the requirements early enough in the process to incorporate them into the design. Some teams assume that these requirements follow standard practice—but in some cases they do not.
The prerequisite demands that teams comply with a number of prescriptive measures, along with requirements for lighting power density reductions and meeting performance thresholds for equipment efficiency based on the ASHRAE 90.1-2007 standard.
The LEED-CI project scope includes only the systems being installed within the scope and budget of the interior fit-out of the project. Base building systems that are not part of the leasable area occupied by the interior space are not addressed here.
This credit usually falls under the responsibility of the mechanical engineer, but the lighting designer, architect, and owner all must contribute to designing an energy-efficient project that meets the owner’s goals as well as the LEED requirements.
This prerequisite refers to ASHRAE 90.1-2007, Sections 5–10, for mandatory provisions and energy-efficiency requirements via a prescriptive or performance-based approach for the project’s envelope, HVAC, service water heating, power, lighting, and other equipment as defined by ASHRAE. In addition, it mandates installation of Energy Star-labeled equipment and appliances.
Projects in California may use Title 24-2005, Part 6 in place of ASHRAE 90.1-2007.
This credit addresses four components of energy use in reference to ASHRAE 90.1–2007.
All ASHRAE requirements can be documented using ASHRAE compliance forms.
This prerequisite establishes the project’s energy performance so that the project can demonstrate a commitment to energy efficiency. The energy use of a LEED-CI project, in terms of the ASHRAE 90.1–2007 standard, must meet four distinct requirements:
Identify the elements of the project that fall under this prerequisite: space cooling, space heating, lighting, ventilation, pumping, and domestic hot water. Do this by reviewing the requirements in ASHRAE 90.1-2007 and developing a building systems narrative for equipment and lighting.
LEED-CI energy systems relate to only those building systems within the construction or remodeling scope of the project. They do not address base building systems outside the interior fit-out. Applicable systems typically include lighting, HVAC distribution, service water heating, and equipment and appliances. The envelope is usually completed as part of the base building. It is only when the envelope is altered in the tenant scope that a CI project must address the requirements listed in the prerequisite.
The owner and project team should determine the project’s energy efficiency goals and include them as part of the owner’s project requirements (OPR) and Basis of Design.
Having the owner take an active role in developing and maintaining energy efficiency goals for the project can be helpful to the project team. Stating goals in terms of a “minimum acceptable level” and a “specified payback period” is an effective way to articulate goals. For example: “Our goal is a minimum 30% reduction in lighting and HVAC energy usage” or “to implement efficiency measures with paybacks of less than 5 years.”
Consider integrating high-efficiency HVAC equipment into your design.
Efficient design can have synergistic benefits. For example, low lighting power density (LPD) translates to a smaller cooling load, which results in a smaller cooling system size and lower energy bills for lighting and cooling, which are the largest demands in most office buildings.
Many local incentive programs offer rebates for efficiency measures. Identify any available incentives at this time to inform your design decisions for equipment selection. Also look for incentives for energy optimization during the design process, like utility-funded energy modeling programs. (See Resources for help finding incentives.)
The prerequisite includes meeting the mandatory requirements for each of the six sections of ASHRAE 90.1-2007.
These six sections include all major energy-using components of a building project:
The MEP team should become familiar with the minimum efficiencies required for heating, cooling, and hot water equipment listed in ASHRAE 90.1-2007, Tables 6.8.1 and 7.8.
If you are installing doors and windows, have the architect check required leakage rates and thermal characteristics of assemblies in Section 5.4.
Lighting control requirements can present a problem if they are not properly understood early in the design stage. Have your lighting designer become familiar with section 9.4, which spells out the requirements for lighting controls and automation systems.
Mandatory provisions of ASHRAE 90.1-2007, Sections 5–10, can be stricter than local codes and should be understood at the beginning of the design phase.
Non-compliance with any of the requirements disqualifies the project from LEED certification. All projects, including remodeling projects, must meet the requirements for all components and systems within the scope of the fit-out. Exemptions include buildings designated “historically significant” by a recognized authority (such as the U.S. Dept. of the Interior), 24-hour facilities, equipment and portions of building systems that use energy primarily to provide for industrial, manufacturing, or commercial processes.
The mandatory provisions (Section x.4) are separate from and in addition to the prescriptive requirements (Sections x.6) of ASHRAE 90.1. The two are commonly but incorrectly used interchangeably. None of the mandatory provisions can be compromised; prescriptive requirements, however, provide a way to meet the minimum efficiency requirements of this prerequisite and offer multiple options for doing so.
In addition to meeting the mandatory requirements, the project must demonstrate that the energy use of the project is equivalent to ASHRAE 90.1-2007. This can be demonstrated by complying with the prescriptive checklist or simulating whole-building energy use with an energy model, also known as the performance option.
The four components of energy use under this prerequisite—envelope, lighting, HVAC and hot water—include only those components that are within the scope of CI work. So, if the hot water boiler is owned by the base building, and the tenant is installing a pipe and pumps to deliver hot water to the bathrooms, the prerequisite covers only the delivery method. So the pipe and the pumps must meet ASHRAE requirements for minimum pipe insulation and pump efficiency—the efficiency of the hot water boiler need not be accounted for.
Developing a simulation model is an added expense and you may need it to provide a demonstrable payback if you’re going to use it as part of your compliance path. It can be well worth the cost, however, especially on larger projects with greater scope. If the scope of the project is larger (>100,000 ft2) and includes a central plant in addition to HVAC distribution and lighting, it can make sense to develop an energy model to assist in system selection and lighting design.
Most CI projects find it cost-effective to pursue the prescriptive option because of a limited design scope in HVAC systems and the building envelope, making the energy model of limited use as a design tool.
Selecting a performance-based approach using an energy model solely for LEED compliance is not recommended. Equal opportunities are available with either the prescriptive or performance approaches for LEED compliance.
Refer to the ASHRAE 90.1-2007 standard for lighting power density allowances. The prerequisite requires your project’s lighting power density (in watts/ft2) to be 10% lower than the standard. ASHRAE lists allowable LPDs in the reference standard of Section 9.5.1 for building types, and in Section 9.6.1 for individual space uses.
Lighting power density is defined as the amount of total lighting power in watts used for a given floor area in ft2 (watts/ft2).
The calculation addresses total lighting power use, although it can be determined in two different ways: the building area method or the space-by-space method. Review the ASHRAE LPD allowances and space-type definitions. Consider which approach is most appropriate for your project to demonstrate compliance.
Refer to EAc1.1: Optimize Energy Performance—Lighting Power for a more detailed description of these methods and credit achievement.
The building area method is simple and it is an easy one for projects that include only a few space types and can be easily classified as one of the building types listed in ASHRAE, Table 9.5.1. The table refers to a single lighting power allowance for each building type. To determine your project’s performance, compare the total allowable LPD for the building type to the installed LPD of your project.
The building area method allows trade-offs to accommodate for increased LPD in specialized spaces. This is done by intentionally reducing LPD in other areas to meet the whole building LPD allowance. The LPD of those specialized spaces may exceed the allowed LPD as long as the whole building LPD is in compliance.
The space-by-space method is a good option for projects that do not fit into one of the building type categories or that require increased LPD allowances for either decorative or merchandise lighting. These types of spaces are allowed higher LPDs, but these increases can only be counted to the extent that they are actually used. ASHRAE allowances are listed in Table 9.6.1 for each space type.
The ASHRAE standard refers to “installed” LPD, so all the light fixtures installed during design and construction must be included in the calculation. Often, designs will provide two fixtures to supplement each other at different times. For example, task lights may be designed to be used only intermittently, but for LPD calculation purposes, you should assume that all lights are switched on.
In a remodeling project, if new lighting is replacing less than 50% of the total installed wattage, the project is exempt from reducing LPD 10% from the ASHRAE 90.1-2007 standard. However, you still must comply with all mandatory requirements for controls and wiring.
Research the exemptions in ASHRAE 90.1-2007, Section 184.108.40.206. Many types of performance and high-powered performance lighting (such theatrical lights) are exempt from the calculations. Refer to the additional lighting allowances for artwork, decorative lighting, and display lighting listed in Section 9.6.2.
LEED only refers to ASHRAE 90.1-2007, Sections 9.4 and 9.5. Other sections are not applicable to LEED certification requirements.
Provide independent controls for all task lights. (This can also contribute to earning EAc1.2: Optimize Energy Performance—Lighting Controls and IEQc6.1: Controllability of Systems—Lighting.
Based on new purchases that are planned, develop a list of appliances and equipment that must meet the Energy Star requirement for your project. If it is Energy Star-labeled, then it must be included in the list. At a minimum, this should include office equipment such as computers, fax machines, printers, scanners, and monitors, as well as appliances such as refrigerators, dishwashers, clothes washers and dryers.
Check the Energy Star website for an up-to-date listing of Energy Star-labeled products and appliances.
HVAC, lighting, and building envelope products are not included for this purpose, because they are addressed in other parts of EAp2 and EAc1.
Refer to credit EAc1.4: Optimize Energy Performance—Equipment and Appliances, for a more detailed description of these methods and credit achievement.
This prerequisite requirement is typically easy to meet. Most office computers and equipment are Energy Star-labeled and usually at little or no cost premium. Carrying out the calculations early on will tell you if the owner should specify more Energy Star-labeled equipment for the new spaces.
Explore opportunities to reduce energy demand by identifying all large, energy-using systems in the project. In a typical office, lighting can contribute 30%–50% of a space’s total energy use, with HVAC at 20%–30%, and the rest for equipment and power loads. If your project’s scope allows envelope modification, explore window size and performance, shading systems, and daylight optimization.
If the owner has identified a percentage reduction in energy-use goals—over code or per square foot—the design team should identify measures to achieve them by optimizing mechanical and lighting design, plug-load equipment, and any other energy-using systems.
Review ASHRAE equipment requirements before system selection as applicable to your project. These are critical and often-overlooked decisions.
Seek synergy in design disciplines. For example, the layout of interior partitions can have an impact on meeting the mandatory provisions for lighting controls.
Decide on your compliance path—Option 1: prescriptive or Option 2: performance—early in the schematic design phase.
Have your mechanical engineer become familiar with all the requirements of the prescriptive sections of ASHRAE 90.1, especially section 6.5. Because this is a prerequisite, noncompliance with any of the provisions disqualifies the project from LEED certification.
Complying with the prescriptive method may require some additional time on the part of the design team to review and update compliance with each requirement. The mechanical engineer, architect, and lighting designer need to walk through the checklist to track the status of each requirement.
Use the ASHRAE compliance forms to update the status of your prerequisite compliance. Typical prescriptive requirements may include a certain heat-pump efficiency rating and the installation of economizers. Building owners may perceive these to be high-cost items, so keep the owner involved in your prescriptive requirement review.
Contract the modeler by the schematic design phase. Have them provide a high-level review of energy-efficiency opportunities, including HVAC system alternatives, lighting power density targets, and proposed envelope assemblies, if applicable.
Develop the lighting layout and identify fixtures so that the design LPD target will be 10% lower than the ASHRAE standard. Use calculation tools and ASHRAE compliance forms to run preliminary lighting power density calculations.
Lighting loads can be reduced through the use of indirect lighting design, lower ambient light levels with increased task lighting, and efficient fixtures such as LEDs, T5 fluorescent lighting, and compact fluorescent lighting.
Use halogen and incandescent lamps with high power density sparingly or not at all, as they can prevent you from meeting the prerequisite.
With early design direction and energy-efficient fixture selection, lighting power density can easily be reduced by 10% with little or no additional cost.
Add the rated power for each piece of new equipment to the list of appliances and equipment that you began during the predesign phase. When the rated power is not easily available from product data sheets, refer to the Energy Star website.
“Rated power” refers to the maximum amount of power that can be drawn by a piece of equipment at any given time. Be sure to use this for each appliance and piece of equipment to be consistent in your documentation.
From your list of appliances and equipment, create a table that includes power rating for each entry, and whether each is Energy Star-labeled. Add the power usage for each piece of equipment on your list, including Energy Star-labeled equipment. The percentage of total power usage from Energy Star-labeled equipment should be at least 50%.
Confirm that the established energy-efficiency measures are incorporated into your design. Identify any questions left open or strategies not included and analyze the potential long-term energy savings before ruling out a strategy that the team or owner is considering eliminating because of its perceived high cost.
Using an integrated design process, the team can easily reduce energy usage below ASHRAE 90.1-2007 thresholds. When designing the lighting layout, the team can take into account the daylighting design of the space in order to reduce the number of fixtures and lower the wattage. The architect can finish the interior space to further enhance lighting efficacy and reduce dependence on mechanical cooling and heating. If appropriate, the mechanical designer should evaluate underfloor air distribution or radiant heat instead of ducted air for higher efficiency.
The mechanical system design often includes the distribution of air and a refrigerated or heated medium. Pumps and fans are large components of energy usage. Use variable-frequency drive pumps and a variable-air-volume distribution system to address fluctuating demand. Install sensors and controls to maintain air volumes and reduce energy waste during low-occupancy periods.
The mechanical team should meet with the base building’s engineer or manager early in the process to get detailed information on the potential to add controls, outside air intakes, and to make efficiency modifications to base building systems.
Continue to verify that the mandatory and minimum requirements of ASHRAE 90.1–2007, Sections 5–10, are being met throughout changes in the design development phase.
Constant communication among project team members throughout the design process is important for minimizing construction and operational costs and meeting the project’s goals. For example, changing a specification, such as the solar heat gain coefficient of glazing, affects mechanical system sizing. These opportunities should be discussed with the team and incorporated into the design.
Continue to verify that the prescriptive requirements of ASHRAE 90.1-2007, Sections 5–10, are being met throughout changes in the design development phase.
All ASHRAE compliance forms should be completed during the design phase to track status and compliance whenever changes are made.
The compliance forms are not required by LEED Online, but it is a good practice to complete them during design development to use as a checklist for the project team and keep them until the project receives LEED certification.
The energy modeler should begin the modeling now, and continue to update it whenever design changes are made to ensure that the project maintains the prerequisite requirements.
Work on an energy model typically takes three to four weeks before it can provide reasonable results and recommendations, so be sure to start this early in design development.
The model is a great design tool that should be utilized to its full potential during design development. Use it to assist in design development for interior mechanical fit-out spaces, comparison of alternative systems, determination of lighting loads, and selection of fixtures. Simulate alternative strategies or designs to provide a true cost-benefit analysis of energy-saving features, along with long-term energy savings and lower maintenance costs for the tenant and building owner.
The energy model can also demonstrate potential savings on the whole building level. While the base building may have existing energy constraints, take the opportunity to encourage future upgrades such as a new central plant, more controls in the base system, end-user ability to set temperatures and reduce energy use, a more efficient air-distribution system—improvements that will benefit the whole building.
The documentation for the performance approach is the same as for EAc1.3: Optimize Energy Performance—HVAC, Option 2 – Energy Cost Reduction, 15-30%.
The prerequisite is dependent on the baseline allowance of lighting watts/ft2. Run preliminary calculations, using the building area method or space-by-space method, and determine which option provides the greater allowance for your project.
If your project develops an energy model, you can use it not only to optimize the lighting design but also to demonstrate that lighting power density is 10% less than the ASHRAE baseline case, per Appendix G.
Check Section 9.6.2 for potential additional allowances for decorative or display lighting. This additional power density is a function of the type of merchandise and the space area.
Although daylight and occupancy sensors help to keep energy costs low, they cannot be used in calculations for lighting power density. However, if your project develops an energy model to demonstrate HVAC and lighting compliance, occupancy and daylight sensors can be used to reduce design-case energy use, per ASHRAE 90.1-2007, Appendix G, Table G3.1, Section 6.
Using the table of appliances and equipment that you developed previously, confirm the rated power of products listed and compliance with the requirement that 50% of the total rated power be Energy Star-labeled.
The calculations are based on the rated power of each appliance or piece of equipment. So a single large power-using appliance, like a refrigerator, may have a higher rated power than dozens of computer monitors. Investigate if those large appliances are Energy Star-labeled, especially if they are to be purchased new for the project, to increase the project’s percentage of rated power that is Energy Star-labeled.
Identify unique or unfamiliar energy-efficiency strategies in the construction documents and confirm expectations and requirements for installation. Outline standards and requirements in bid packages so that they are clear to the general contractor and subcontractors.
Apply for rebates and incentives based on actual system selection.
Revisit all prerequisite requirements to confirm compliance after any value engineering has been completed.
As the prerequisite energy target goes beyond code compliance, some members of the construction team may not be familiar with the additional requirements. Integrate equipment selections in drawings and bid documents.
Refer to the ASHRAE compliance form to check if measures such as controls, sensors, wiring, equipment efficiency, window specifications, and pipe insulation are included in drawings and bid packages.
Discuss efficiency upgrades with the bidding teams to clarify any questions about new systems.
Ensure that the specified lighting system and controls are installed.
Do not replace high-efficiency lighting to reduce costs.
Update the table of appliances and equipment after the construction documents are complete to track any reduction or increase in the amount of Energy Star-labeled equipment and appliances. If the Energy Star-labeled systems do not make up 50% of the total rated power, revisit the list to identify which appliances and equipment can be upgraded to meet the threshold.
Install the systems as specified. Have the mechanical engineer and the commissioning agent visit the site to ensure that the correct systems are being installed.
Confirm that the system components and system efficiency are the same as that specified.
Develop the compliance documentation. Compliance can be demonstrated with ASHRAE 90.1-2007 compliance forms, or the LEED Online form may be signed by the registered architect and design engineer.
Demonstrate compliance using the ASHRAE forms or a sign-off by the registered architect and engineer.
Demonstrate LPD compliance using ASHRAE compliance forms— or if your project developed an energy model, use the outputs from the model to fill in the forms. Compliance forms are available on the ASHRAE website for free download.
ComCheck may be used to demonstrate compliance with LPD requirements.
Complete the table of equipment and appliances in LEED Online and verify that 50% of the rated power is Energy Star-labeled.
Have the MEP engineer and controls contractor develop an operations manual in collaboration with facility management and the commissioning agent to aid in maintaining and correctly operating all energy-efficient equipment.
Energy-efficient design strategies may be new to the users and operating staff. It is helpful to develop training and an O&M manual. Occupants and facility staff should be aware of any automatic controls and refrain from changing settings and controls during the initial months of occupancy.
Energy-efficiency measures often offset their own cost by providing large savings on operational energy bills. These prerequisite requirements are directly tied to the benefit of efficient, low-cost operations.
The lease or sale agreement may include a fixed utility rate such that energy-efficiency measures do not provide a direct payback to the client. In these cases, the tenant or buyer may want to renegotiate the lease with the landlord so that utilities are not included in the agreement and are paid directly by the tenant.
Excerpted from LEED 2009 for Commercial Interiors
To establish the minimum level of energy efficiency for the tenant spaceTenant space is the area within the LEED project boundary. For more information on what can and must be in the LEED project boundary see the Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance. Note: tenant space is the same as project space. systems to reduce environmental and economic impacts associated with excessive energy use.
Design portions of the building as covered by the tenant’s scope of work to comply with ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1–2007 (with errata but without addenda1) and complete the following:
Projects in California may use Title 24–2005, Part 6, in place of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1–2007.
Design the systems impacted in the tenant’s scope of work to maximize energy performance. Use a computer simulation model to assess the energy performance and identify the most cost-effective energy measures. Quantify energy performance compared with a baseline building.
If local code has demonstrated quantitative and textual equivalence following, at a minimum, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) standard process for commercial energy code determination, then the local code may be used to satisfy this prerequisite in lieu of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007. Details on the DOE process for commercial energy code determination can be found at http://www.energycodes.gov/implement/determinations.
1. Project teams wishing to use ASHRAE approved addenda for the purposes of this credit may do so at their discretion. Addenda must be appliedconsistently across all LEED credits.
This database shows state-by-state incentives for energy efficiency, renewable energy, and other green building measures. Included in this database are incentives on demand control ventilation, ERVs, and HRVs.
Non-profit organization aiming at design community to increase collaboration for designing energy efficient buildings.
International association of energy modelers with various national and local chapters.
The Low Impact Hydropower Institute is a non-profit organization and certification body that establishes criteria against which to judge the environmental impacts of hydropower projects in the United States.
Explore this website to find out how building green can boost your bottom line. Get tips for streamlining design and construction. Learn which strategies deliver the biggest paybacks.
Free download of AHSRAE energy savings guide, use for Option 2.
Research warehouse for strategies and case studies of energy efficiency in buildings.
A prescriptive program to achieve signifi cant, predictable energy savings in new commercial buildings.
This website lays out design process for developing an energy efficient building.
An online window selection tool with performance characteristics.
This online resource, supported by Natural Resources Canada, presents energy-efficient technologies, strategies for commercial buildings, and pertinent case studies.
This website discusses ways to improve design for lower energy demand as they relate to the AIA 2030 challenge.
This website includes discussion of design issues, materials and assemblies, window design decisions and case studies.
This site lists multiple web-based and downloadable tools that can be used for energy analyses.
This database is maintainted by the California Energy Commission and lists resources related to energy use and efficiency.
Energy design tools are available to be used for free online or available to download.
This website lists performance characteristics for various envelope materials.
This is an online forum of discussion for energy efficiency, computer model software users.
This website offers information on energy efficiency in buildings, highlighting success stories, breakthrough technology, and policy updates.
Bimonthly publication on case studies and new technologies for energy efficiency in commercial buildings.
Computer modeling for building energy use.
AIA publication highlighting local and state green building incentives.
2008 guidelines and performance goals from the National Science and Technology Council.
DOE tools for whole building analyses, including energy simulation, load calculation, renewable energy, retrofit analysis and green buildings tools.
This is a tool available to download for envelope moisture analysis tool.
WUFI-ORNL/IBP is a menu-driven PC program which allows realistic calculation of the transient coupled one-dimensional heat and moisture transport in multi-layer building components exposed to natural weather.
Autodesk BIM software facilitates an improved way of working collaboratively, using a model created from coordinated, consistent design information.
The following links take you to the public, informational versions of the dynamic LEED Online forms for each CI-2009 EA credit. You'll need to fill out the live versions of these forms on LEED
Online for each credit you hope to earn.
Version 4 forms (newest):
Version 3 forms:
These links are posted by LEEDuser with USGBC's permission. USGBC has certain usage restrictions for these forms; for more information, visit LEED Online and click "Sample Forms Download."
Documentation for this credit can be part of a Design Phase submittal.
Complete documentation for achievement of EAp2 on a LEED-CI 2009 project.
How do you meet and demonstrate requirements of EApr2 if elements of the existing building envelope does NOT meet 90.1-2007 Prescriptive measures? One thought: Can you use Building Performance Rating( appendix G) to demonstrate overall performance and sidestep existing building envelope weaknesses?
You are only required to meet the mandatory and prescriptive measures associated with your scope of work. So if you are not replacing the windows or adding to the walls you do not have to meet those requirements.
Hi, I am trying to document the efficiency for comms room AC units and a data centre down flow AC units. As we are in Europe the efficiency is quoted by manufacturers in EER. ASHRAE 90.1 2007 Table 6.8.1D refers to COP. Does anyone have an accepted conversion. e.g an EER will have a COP of ???
COP = (EER)/3.413
Thanks. Is there any exemptions for smaller AC units. I have some AC units that have an EER of 3.57 and this would equate to a COP of 1.046 which is less than the minimum performance for LEED (2.49). I can't get units with a COP of 2.49 as this would mean an EER of 8.5 which is not available in the marketplace ? Is my interpretation wrong ?
I am not aware of any exceptions for small air conditioners. The EER of the units you mention is well below what is legal in the US. These minimum efficiencies are mandatory for LEED projects.
How does one calculate the required Standby loss for a domestic hot water calorifier. I have the rated values in kwhA kilowatt-hour is a unit of work or energy, measured as 1 kilowatt (1,000 watts) of power expended for 1 hour. One kWh is equivalent to 3,412 Btu./day from the manufacturer but not sure how or where I can get the required values from.
The standby loss (SL) is maximum BtuA unit of energy consumed by or delivered to a building. A Btu is an acronym for British thermal unit and is defined as the amount of energy required to increase the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit, at normal atmospheric pressure. Energy consumption is expressed in Btu to allow for consumption comparisons among fuels that are measured in different units./h based on a 70°F temperature difference between stored water and ambient requirements. See the note at the bottom of Table 7.8 for the SI equivalent units.
The formula for a greater than 12 kW electric water heater would be -
20 + (35 x square root of V) = SL
Many thanks. I note that there is no SL formula for electric water heaters <12kW OR gas storage water heaters <22.98kW. Is it not applicable for smaller installations ?
Correct for the smaller heaters you calculate EF and not SL.
I have a 12kW electric water cylinder and a 12kW direct gas fired water heater. Can anyone please explain what I need to check to ensure the performance requirements comply with ASHRAE 90.1 2007 table 7.8. I dont understand the rating condition and performance required headings.
The Subcategory or Rating Condition refers to the type of water heater and/or its storage capacity.
The Performance Required is a formula used to determine the minimum efficiency of the equipment. So for a 12 kW electric, tank-type water heater the formula you use is 0.93–0.00132V EF. The note below the table identifies the variables V and EF. A clearer way to see this formula would be EF = 0.93–0.00132V. So put the volume of the tank in the equation and calculate the EF.
Our CI project does not have lighting included in its scope (very cost prohibitive, for the way lighting is layed out in the space) and base building lighting is being planned to be used as is. Lighting in the space is above the minimum LEED requirement (10% below Ashrae). Since its out of scope can we receive an exemption for this, or will we have to drop LEED certification altogether?
You are only required to comply with requirements related to your scope of work.
My understanding is that the project space must meet the LPDLighting power density (LPD) is the amount of electric lighting, usually measured in watts per square foot, being used to illuminate a given space. requirement (10% below ASHRAE) to meet the prerequisite even if lighting is not included in the scope of work. This is - to the best of my knowledge - one of the few places where compliance is mandatory even for items not included in the project scope of work. (I'd love to be proven wrong here.)
The LEED Online form specifically requires completion of a table for the LPD and states that a 10% or greater reduction is required to document compliance.
The reference guide is unclear, but at the beginning of the implementation section it indicates that "If provisions of the base building are managed entirely by the Landlord (and thus cannot be changed by the building tenant) and do not meet the requirements of ASHRAE 90.1-2007, then only areas that are not part of the tenant scope of work and exclusively controlled by the Landlord are exempt from the requirements of the standard."
As you indicate the issue is one of cost rather than control, it appears unlikely that this exemption could be successfully applied here.
I am not 100% certain that an exemption would be allowed by the reviewer but it does not make any sense to me that they would require compliance beyond the scope of work since that is the fundamental dividing line between CI and CS. I would argue it if they do. Contact GBCI through the contact me on the web site and ask them directly.
Got feedback from the GBCI technical experts at Green Build, the only way to meet this prerequisite (if lighting is not in scope) is to perform an energy model and show compliance. They referenced the LEED InterpretationLEED Interpretations are official answers to technical inquiries about implementing LEED on a project. They help people understand how their projects can meet LEED requirements and provide clarity on existing options. LEED Interpretations are to be used by any project certifying under an applicable rating system. All project teams are required to adhere to all LEED Interpretations posted before their registration date. This also applies to other addenda. Adherence to rulings posted after a project registers is optional, but strongly encouraged. LEED Interpretations are published in a searchable database at usgbc.org.# 10412 and 10421.
Our project does not include task lighting; however several users have brought existing task lighting with them from the previous premises to the new premises. It is unclear whether the task lights are owned by the project owner or the occupants, although as the project owner has a corporate policy against task lighting, I presume that ownership could be transferred to the occupants if this made any difference. The photographs supplied as documentation for PIf4 were taken after occupation and show task lighting on a number of desks.
The review team has indicated that we need to include this task lighting in our LPDLighting power density (LPD) is the amount of electric lighting, usually measured in watts per square foot, being used to illuminate a given space. calculation.
The credit language requires design compliance for all portions of the building within the Tenant's scope of work; however it also indicates that the LPD must be applied to the entire tenant's space. It is clear that pre-existing lighting fixtures in the space must be included in the calculation; however the situation here is somewhat different.
Has anyone had experience excluding task lighting which is installed by the project occupants? These will fluctuate over the life of the space as occupants come and go and as they do not form part of the lighting design it is difficult to include them in the LPD calculation in any meaningful way.
Task lights have always counted in LPDLighting power density (LPD) is the amount of electric lighting, usually measured in watts per square foot, being used to illuminate a given space. calculations. Ownership of the light fixture does not make any difference. What is plugged in is what counts. Count what is there now and include it.
Perhaps the owner should consider finding out why folks feel they need task lights or maybe enforce their own policy if the lighting system has been designed to negate their necessity. A task/ambient system is often the most energy efficient so I am not sure why they would have such a policy.
The moral of the story is that you should submit your design phase before occupancy. What happens after move in really should not impact a "design and construction" rating system.
Also, note that "furniture-mounted supplemental task lighting that is controlled by automatic shutoff" can be excluded per 90.1-2007 220.127.116.11 exception (p). So another alternative is to buy these folks a power strip with an occupancy sensor attached. http://www.wattstopper.com/products/sensors/plug-load-controls/idp-3050....
Christopher - Thanks for the help, the product recommended could be very useful. I've used the 18.104.22.168 exception on another project when we were able to include the automatic shut-off into the design but was not aware a post-design solution existed.
As the fit-out period for most of our CI projects is very short we typically go for a combined review. We've learned something important about the timing of the interior photographs on this project.
Marcus - the general policy against task lighting is because occupants often do not turn the fixtures off when they leave. I know they've also had issues with older (non-LED) fixtures - in one instance an occupant left a stuffed animal next to a task light and it caught fire - and then complained that someone had "stolen" their animal.
So the policy should ban incandescent/halogen task lights.
Power over Ethernet (PoE) telephones: Are they required to be included within EAp2 equipment?
Any advice and suggestions will be greatly appreciated.
You need to include all equipment in any category which has an Energy Star rating. An Energy Star rating for Voice over IP (VoIP) phones was introduced on October 1, 2014, and thus VoIP phones need to be included in the documentation of all projects registered after that date.
While there is considerable overlap between VoIP and PoE phones, the categories are not the same.
For what it's worth, the Cisco systems we've investigated thus far are NOT energy star compliant.
I was reviewing the LI for EAp2 this afternoon and saw a reference to LI 1044 (in LI 10400) which indicates that equipment purchased within 2 years of the introduction of the first Energy Star standard may be excluded if all such equipment is excluded consistently. This means that you are likely off the hook on the IP phones for now.
I have three questions:
- We are applying for a commercial interior project, we received our final review (after prem. review) I received a new comment that wasn't mentioned in a prem. review stage, should we go for an appeal review or there is anything else we can do?
- If we choose to go for an appeal review the comment indicates that: The decorative and retail luminaires must be included in the calculations to demonstrate compliance.
However in the ASHRAE standard 90.1-2007/22.214.171.124 : any such lighting shall not be exempt unless it is an addition to general lighting and is controlled by an independent control device.
which in our project there are decorative items with separate control that I excluded them from the calculations.
- How many times can I submit for an appeal review?
Can anyone help ASAP?
The reviewer is not supposed to comment on something new in the final review if they missed it in the preliminary review. If it was based on new information you provided in response to the preliminary review comments then they can hold you accountable.
So if the reviewer made a mistake you can challenge it via the GBCI Contact Us. If not then you need to appeal.
In order to be exempt the lighting in question needs to be on the list of exceptions. Decorate/retail lighting is not on the list (except for retail display windows). Section 9.6.2 does allow additional lighting allowance for some decorative and retail lighting.
Hopefully you only need to appeal once, however, you can appeal as many times as you like and are willing to pay for.
I am about to prepare a proposal for a client that wants to renovate his 2 story office inside a 20 years old building and he wants LEED CI certification.
Do I need to include an energy simulation service? Does anyone have a sample of SOW and deliverables to be included in a LEED CI proposal? Thanks!!
An energy model is not usually required for a CI project. The SOW depends on far too many variables to say what you need to include. We often are engaged to develop an initial scorecard first as only then can a SOW be developed with any degree of accuracy. We also often ask the client to tell us the scope and talk to them about it if they are unsure.
The project is installing VRV units of Daikin (VRV Model # RXYQ18PY16). How shall we go for prescriptive compliance as per ASHRAE 90.1 2007 and Core Performance Guide, since they are not covered at that time? How shall we obtain points under EAc1.3- HVAC - Equipment Efficiency?
Technically VRF is not covered by 90.1-2007 so it becomes basically exempt. I would look to ASHRAE 90.1-2013 to demonstrate minimum compliance however, since they are covered there. Not sure about Core Performance or EAc1.3.
I am working on cl commercial project , when we resisted to the leed certificate we didn't have any energy star equipment's in our building , but to achieve more points we decided to replace our equipment's like laptops , printers and pc's , the question :
in the online form there are table required from me to fill it with energy star and non energy star equipment , should i fill it with energy star equipment only that i bought it in this case because they are new equipment i bought it after i registered to the leed certificate ?????????
another question :
what is the documentation should i provide it with the leed online form to achieve minimum energy performance and this credit ?? is the sheet for laptop and printer is enough ??????
another question : i took the rated powerRated power is the nameplate power on a piece of equipment. It represents the capacity of the unit and is the maximum that it will draw. for our laptops in the company , i read it on nameplate about 90 watt , and 450 watt for printer , is that okay right or wrong ??? and for desk computer should i enter the case and monitor together or i entered them separately ????
Registration date does not matter. What matters is what is in the scope of work. Anything in the scope of work counts.
Yes be prepared to show that the equipment installed is Energy Star.
Nameplate data would work but it is sometimes misleading. You might want to check with the manufacturer.
I think you would enter the monitor and desktop separately.
I'm attempting to register the energy star equipment for my project under Table EAp2-4. The table asks for Rated PowerRated power is the nameplate power on a piece of equipment. It represents the capacity of the unit and is the maximum that it will draw. in WATTS. Every spec I have found for the refrigerator, washer and dryer list the power in kWa. I found a calculator from kWa to W online, but it asks to divide by number of hours.
Has anyone come across this conversion? Should I divide by hours in a day, hours in a year, etc?
I have not seen kWa but it sounds like kW (1000 watts).
If it said kWhA kilowatt-hour is a unit of work or energy, measured as 1 kilowatt (1,000 watts) of power expended for 1 hour. One kWh is equivalent to 3,412 Btu. then dividing by the hours makes sense since kW times hours of use = kWh.
I misspoke, I meant that most of the energy is being quoted in annual kWhA kilowatt-hour is a unit of work or energy, measured as 1 kilowatt (1,000 watts) of power expended for 1 hour. One kWh is equivalent to 3,412 Btu., not kWa. Knowing that this is an annual calculation of kW (1000 watts), is there a recommended conversion to take this to rated Watts as required by LEED. None of the specifications i've looked at have communicated the power in Watts.
You should be able to get the current in amps from the spec sheet, and then you multiply it by the local voltage and you get watts.
In other cases, I have assumed that the refrigerator compressor is on somewhere between 5-6 hours per day, and used that to estimate the rated powerRated power is the nameplate power on a piece of equipment. It represents the capacity of the unit and is the maximum that it will draw. based on the annual kW-h.
If you have kWhA kilowatt-hour is a unit of work or energy, measured as 1 kilowatt (1,000 watts) of power expended for 1 hour. One kWh is equivalent to 3,412 Btu. that should be for a period of time. You then need the hours of use (run time) to get the watts. The kWh ratings are determined using a set quantity of run time so you might need to find out the testing protocol they used to determine the kWh and work backward. However, you should be able to determine the watts as Gaston has indicated.
From where can i take rated powerRated power is the nameplate power on a piece of equipment. It represents the capacity of the unit and is the maximum that it will draw. for equipments like laptop , i read it on laptop about 55wh then i divded it by work hours give me 6.7watt , is that right ??????
Name plate data for many electronic devices will be inaccurate. Your value sounds low for a laptop.
You definitely should not divide by work hours - the form requires the rated powerRated power is the nameplate power on a piece of equipment. It represents the capacity of the unit and is the maximum that it will draw. - which is the value on the name plate. You might check the technical specification for the product online.
but the nameplate on laptop give me the rated powerRated power is the nameplate power on a piece of equipment. It represents the capacity of the unit and is the maximum that it will draw. in watt houre , the form on leedonline asks for rated power in watt so i should convert it from watt hour to watt by divided it on the works hour , right ????
I generally do not see watt hours on the name plate. There is usually a watt value or sometimes volts and amps for larger equipment.
Our CI space is bounded by the base building's envelope on 2 sides. We will be adding shades to the windows. Is it a requirement for us to do the envelope compliance forms?
Also we utilized existing air conditioning ductwork in the space, changed the diffusersIn an HVAC context, diffusers disperse heating, cooling, or ventilation air as it enters a room, ideally preventing uncomfortable direct currents and in many cases, reducing energy costs and improving indoor air quality (IAQ). In light fixtures, diffusers filter and disperse light. and then balanced the air flow. We are inserting new filters in the base building AC system and ventilation system which serves the space. Is it a requirement for us to submit the the HVAC compliance forms?
We have certified multiple projects with a similar scope of work and have never submitted these, nor have they been requested.
You are only required to document what is in your scope of work. Does not sound like anything in your scope would show up on these forms.
Thanks for the prompt reply
The client of an commercial interiors project location wants to avoid the use of motorized dampers where possible. The project extends over only the third (top) floor and a section of the first level basement of an existing office building . I was wondering if we can motivate exemption under the "buildings less than three stories in height above grade" as the project is only active across two floors. Do you have any guidance on that?
Good morning, I was wondering if anyone had any thoughts regarding this request or if there is no way around motorised dampers.
Many thanks in advance.
For LEED purposes I think that you would qualify for the exception. The LEED CI requirements are based on your scope of work and your scope of work would comply with the mandatory provision with a non-motorized damper.
I am trying to find out if a building owner is installing new lighting in a space, will a future tenant be able to included the existing lighting in the lighting power density calculations for EAp2/EAc1.1? Thank you in advance.
The ASHRAE 90.1-2007 baseline for lighting is always the lighting power density values in the standard, not the existing condition.
Hi to all:
In our project we have a cafeteria (2,000ft2) with the following features:
1. a density of 55 people per 1,000ft2
2. The outdoor airflow (3,600 cfm) is being delivered by an DOAS
3. The zone in conditioned with DX constant speed systems
Does this system require a DCV in order to comply with the mandatory provisions?
Thanks in advance.
It sure sounds like DCV would be required according to Section 126.96.36.199.
1. How does one overcome the limitation of number of rows in the ASHRAE Lighting Compliance Documentation PDF form? For example, on page number 2, there are ten rows for entering luminaires by ID, our project has more than 13 types of luminaires.
2. What is the best way to deal with shell spaces set aside for future planning when following the space-by-space method for Lighting Power Calculations? I have to check what the lighting situation in there exactly is but it may either have existing lighting or some nominal lighting in there until further development.
Typically, I deal with problem 1 by adding additional page 2's to the original ASHRAE form. I also make sure to add a note such as " Continued on next page" at the bottom of the form.
2. You can claim savings if there is a lighting design for those spaces or if they are tenant spaces you would need a lease agreement clause requiring a lower lighting power density in those spaces. Otherwise the spaces would be modeled identical to the baseline level.
We have a client who runs tests on Set Top Boxes in a test lab for their customers to determine problems and fix them. They have literally a hundred thousand STBs - they have to have at least one of each type any of their clients own and use. Many of these are older models so not available in Energy Star. Many of them will be kept for a few months until their customers replace with a newer model, so the specs are constantly changing.
How do we account for the constantly changing nature of the STBs? do we just capture the ones they have at move in, in the Energy Star tracker? Should we file an interpretation request?
any and all advice appreciated -
The clearest path would be to record the STBs on move in and take them into account. That should be acceptable.
If you can't meet the prerequisite because of them then you might submit a LEED Interpretations seeking some sort of exemption.
Hi there, should I consider DOAS fan power as part of the total system fan power? The DOAS transports unconditioned outside air to the mixing plenum of the VRF indoor unit.
I would think that you should do so. It is a fan associated with a system that provides heating/cooling.
Thanks Marcus, That is my interpretation too.
We're working on a TI office project of less than 5,000 sf in a building that is larger than 5,000 sf. I had a question about ASHRAE 90.1 2007 sections 188.8.131.52 and 184.108.40.206 about automatic lighting shutoff and space control.
As a TI space in the scenario described above, do we need to comply with 220.127.116.11 given our <5,000 sf size of our space?
Also, is Section 18.104.22.168 b. describing manual switching as an option?
Thanks for your help.
22.214.171.124 - Applies to the building as a whole, not just your space.
126.96.36.199 - Yes manual switching is an option in most spaces. Automatic controls are required in the spaces listed under "a".
If we choose the performance option (Section 11), do we still have to comply with the 50% rated powerRated power is the nameplate power on a piece of equipment. It represents the capacity of the unit and is the maximum that it will draw. Energy Star??
Yes all four items are independent of each other.
Thanks for your answer, Marcus!
I have a client investigating LEED-CI for a upcoming project.
Interior fit up, but no change in HVAC system for a building built in the 1980's.
Does this prerequisite subscribe to existing HVAC or only new equipment?
For a CI project it is the scope of work which determines what applies. So typically only new equipment.
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