Measurement and Verification (M&V) can keep the owner and tenant informed of energy-use details, typically by recording actual energy use over the course of project occupancy and comparing that data with design-estimated energy use. An M&V program can ensure that all systems perform as specified in the design and identify any anomalies in equipment, operational procedures, or user habits. While M&V can be applied to a variety of metrics, including water use and indoor environmental quality, this credit focuses only on energy performance.
The intent of EAc5.2 is to provide a monitoring or metering system in the base building to which tenants can connect to monitor their spaces. This credit does not require your project to install all the components of an M&V program, but it does require writing an M&V plan for tenants that provides guidance on connecting to the base building monitoring system and developing a corrective action plan if energy goals are not being achieved.
EAc5.1 actually measures the base building energy use, and EAc5.2 sets up the infrastructure and provides guidance for tenant submeteringSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.g., the heating subsystem of an HVAC system).. EAc5.2 is ideal if your project will have LEED-CI tenants or if tenants plan to make energy improvements. Your project can attempt one or both of these credits.
The cost of M&V varies from one project to the next. Added costs come from designing and installing specific monitoring systems in larger and more complex buildings. To make the investment worth it, the owner must be committed to developing and implementing an M&V plan, encouraging tenants to monitor or submeterSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy or water use within a building attributable to specific end uses such as tenant spaces, or subsystems such as the heating component of an HVAC system. their spaces, analyzing and understanding the building’s performance, and acting on the results.
The “M&V provider” takes responsibility for developing the M&V plan. This role can be filled by the commissioning agent, energy modeler, mechanical engineer, project engineer, or a facilities manager. However, the tenant is then responsible for providing themselves with the means to connect to the M&V systems and to use the information in an effective manner.
Although this credit does not require the M&V plan to be based on a specific standard, LEED-CS EAc5.1 and LEED-CI EAc3 require specific standards that you should be aware of when choosing base building infrastructure and writing M&V guidance for tenants.
The industry standard for M&V, both in the U.S. and internationally, is the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVPThe International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) provides best-practice protocol for measurement and verification of new construction. This standard is referenced in LEED's measurement and verification credits.), owned by the nonprofit Efficiency Valuation Organization. LEED has singled out Volume III of the IPMVP guidance as the basis of its LEED-NC and LEED-CS requirements, and Volume I of the IPMVP as the basis for LEED-CI requirements. Several organizations have published M&V guidelines based on IPMVP. Among them are ASHRAE, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and some utilities and states that fund energy-efficiency projects. Some organizations with M&V standards offer guidance in writing M&V plans, including sample language.
The only required submetering is for electricity. Tenant spaces must be submetered or independently metered by the electric utility.
Fees for shared building utilities such as steam or hot water should be pro-rated among tenants based on area or occupancy, and based on actual building consumption. In other words, gross leases, where tenants pay a fixed lump sum for all rent and other expenses, will not meet the intent of this credit.
Discuss as a team whether M&V will contribute to your project’s goals for energy reduction and system monitoring. Consider your project’s size, its complexity, and your tenants’ needs. Also think about how the building will be operated. If the M&V program is not likely to be fully utilized by the tenants, it may not be an appropriate investment.
Introduce the M&V program into the design early in the process, because it can affect the design of the mechanical and electrical systems as well as the BMS, if you have one. There is also inherent value in having the design teams think about how the building will be operated.
Determine whether attempting EAc5.1, EAc5.2, or both is best for your project. Achieving both will earn your project a total of six points. You can attempt one or both—neither is dependent on the other.
This credit focuses on setting up the infrastructure for tenants to submeter their space, and helping them meet the requirements of LEED-CI EAc3: Measurement and Verification.
You’ll need to write an M&V plan that provides guidance for future tenants. The plan should encourage tenants to submeter their space, and should provide guidance on attempting LEED-CI EAc3. You’ll also need to provide information on developing corrective actions if the M&V program indicates that the assumed energy savings are not being achieved.
Consider the impact of an M&V program on mechanical system design requirements. Keep in mind that a tenant’s mechanical system must be capable of providing the necessary outputs for the monitoring or submetering system. Typically, the outputs are energy usage stated as kWs, BTUs, or therms over a given period of time. Whether you receive an automated record from a BMS or take a metered reading on the equipment manually at regular intervals, the specific output metrics and duration need to be defined in your M&V plan so that tenants can take advantage of the base building monitoring system.
When writing the M&V plan for tenant guidance, provide detailed information on ways to connect to the base building M&V infrastructure. It is helpful to give product information and specific recommendations for mechanical and electrical systems.
Consider incorporating a building management system (BMS) into your building design. A BMS is not required by the credit, but the level of detail provided by a BMS can be much more helpful than a simple monitoring system.
The “M&V provider” develops the M&V plan. This role can be filled by the commissioning agent, energy modeler, mechanical engineer, project engineer, or a facilities manager.
Contract with an M&V provider early in the design phase so that system components and recommendations can be implemented seamlessly rather than becoming add-ons.
Discuss as a team whether M&V will contribute to project goals for energy reduction and system monitoring. Consider your project’s size, complexity, and tenant needs. Also think about how the building is likely to be operated. If an M&V program is not likely to be fully utilized, it may not be worth the investment.
Determine the best infrastructure for a metering network. The system must be installed in a central location and have the capability to expand to metering tenant spaces. Although for this credit you do not actually have to meter tenant spaces, you do need to provide the means for tenants to connect to the system. You’ll also need to include a section in the M&V plan on developing corrective actions if the measurements of tenants’ actual energy use differ from those predicted.
Discuss how the facility manager will support the M&V plan. Include expected staffing for tenant M&V efforts and operation of the monitoring system.
Write an M&V plan and provide the tenants with information on submetering their individual spaces as soon as possible.
You need to write but not implement the M&V plan for tenants. Your M&V plan should include detailed information for tenants—what actions they need to take to connect their spaces to the base-building metering network, and what they need to do to achieve LEED-CI EAc3.
The M&V plan (written for tenant use) for EAc5.2 does not need to be as detailed (or as building- or space-specific) as those written for EAc5.1 or LEED-NC EAc5. The plan for this credit is designed to inform tenants about M&V, the building, its metering system, connecting to it to submeter their space, and a process for corrective action if the results of metering differ from the anticipated energy usage. Your plan should address tenant options for achieving LEED-CI EAc3: Measurement and Verification, and briefly cover the IPMVP, Volume I options that are acceptable for LEED-CI certification. Be aware that LEED-CS EAc5.1 and LEED-NC EAc5 require projects to follow IPMVP, Volume III rather than Volume I. Volume I deals with general concepts of M&V while Volume III is specific to new construction.
Utility companies may provide incentives or rebates for submetering and BMS programs. Check with your local utility to see if it offers rebates.
Some utility districts prohibit tenant submetering and charging by a third-party provider. If your local utility does not allow third-party submetering, find out if your utility will install separate meters for tenants.
The cost of M&V can vary significantly from one project to another. You’ll need to get project-specific bids based on your individual design needs. Accuracy and cost of M&V plans are influenced by the following:
Design your M&V program for use throughout the life of the building to provide the highest return on investment. However, for credit compliance it is best monitor for at least one year.
Talk to facility operations staff and tenants about the financial benefits and operational requirements of an M&V plan, because any energy savings achieved through M&V depends heavily on their participation.
Introduce your M&V program into the design early in the process, because it can affect the design of the mechanical and electrical systems. There is also inherent value in having your design teams think about how the building will operate. For example, if the architect knows that certain spaces will only be operated during the nighttime then they might not want to include daylight sensors.
An M&V program generally includes sensors—which measure the volume and rate of flow (if water is included), watts of energy draw, temperature, length of time, and other variables—and a central processor, which stores the collected information and helps building managers interpret it.
The M&V provider works with the mechanical engineer to determine the best monitoring system and to verify that all systems are designed to allow metering and submetering within the tenant space.
The M&V provider verifies that tenants can easily connect to the main metering network.
The mechanical engineer designs and specifies appropriate submetering or monitoring devices. The M&V provider verifies that the M&V program and systems are capable of providing the information required for the credit and that tenants can easily connect to the monitoring devices.
Permanent installation of water meters, although not required for LEED, allows easier monitoring of water consumption and savings. Water metering of graywater and rainwater systems is generally included in M&V plans, and monitoring general water use is also useful for verifying projected savings.
Attempting to add on a submetering or monitoring system once mechanical and electrical systems have been designed can be cost-prohibitive due to redesign charges.
Coordinate with your mechanical and electrical engineers to verify that the control devices are able to provide the information needed for credit compliance.
Your M&V plan should define the actions to be taken by the facility manager to investigate discrepancies and correct malfunctioning equipment. If energy-saving goals are not met, or if unexpected performance occurs, the M&V system provides useful feedback for tracking the source of problems.
The M&V submetering devices are installed, and then commissioned (for EAp1 and EAc3) to verify their functional accuracy.
Installation of the M&V system should be fairly straightforward. Depending on your system and the experience of the subcontractors, however, specialized contractors may be needed. If the tenant is performing M&V they need to include the facilities manager in the planning. The M&V plan for core and shell buildings should anticipate this and establish a process for collaboration with future tenants. (See Resources for information on qualified practitioners.)
Inform tenants, including potential tenants, about the M&V plan and metering network that has been installed for their use. This can be a great selling point, especially for tenants planning to pursue LEED-CI certification. Provide a copy of your M&V plan early on so that they can determine if LEED-CI or tenant submetering is right for their project.
Meters and submeters should be recalibrated periodically according to manufacturers’ recommendations.
Encourage the operations team to focus on running the building at optimal efficiency.
The payback period for a submetering program depends on its initial cost and whether the M&V program identifies inefficiencies that wouldn’t have been found otherwise—substantial fixes can pay for the metering system. The true return on investment, however, depends on the commitment of the tenant, owner, and operational staff. Because M&V monitors actual building operation over time, the data provided can lead to valuable operational savings by uncovering system design, installation, and control issues not caught during commissioning.
Excerpted from LEED 2009 for Core and Shell Development
To provide for ongoing accountability of building electricity consumption performance over time.
Include a centrally monitored electronic metering network in the base building design that is capable of being expanded to accommodate the future tenant submeteringSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.g., the heating subsystem of an HVAC system). as required by LEED 2009 for Commercial Interiors Rating System EA Credit 3: Measurement and Verification.
Develop a tenant measurement and verification (M&V) plan that documents and advises future tenants of this opportunity and the means of achievement.
Provide a process for corrective action if the results of the M&V plan indicate that energy savings are not being achieved.
Install the necessary metering and submeteringSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.g., the heating subsystem of an HVAC system). equipment to measure energy use. Develop and implement an M&V plan that can be utilized and expanded by the tenant and that compares predicted savings to actual energy performance.
For the corrective action process, consider installing diagnostics within the control system to alert the staff when equipment is not being optimally operated. Conditions that might warrant alarms to alert staff could include:
Besides control diagnostics, consider employing retro-commissioning services or dedicating staff to investigate increases in energy usage (such a staff member is usually a resource conservation manager — see http://www.energy.state.or.us/rcm/rcmhm.htm for additional information).
IPMVPThe International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) provides best-practice protocol for measurement and verification of new construction. This standard is referenced in LEED's measurement and verification credits. is the standard upon which the LEED M&V requirements are based. Use these documents should be used in designing the M&V system and plan.
These M&V guidelines are written for federal buildings but could be helpful for many projects.
This website provides a list of resources to help teams implement an M&V program.
This article discusses the usefulness of M&V, including examples of problems that M&V systems have been able to identify.
Chapter 27 covers Measurement and Verification of Energy Savings and has some very useful information from the history of M&V, including various methods and equipment.
This blog includes regular articles from EVO insiders (and outsiders who meet our editorial guidelines) to inspire discussion on M&V topics.
The Energy Valuation Organization, in conjunction with the Association of Energy Engineers, offers an M&V professional certification program. The Association of Energy Engineers holds training seminars for those preparing to take the certification exam and anyone else interested in learning the fundamentals of M&V and working with IPMVPThe International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) provides best-practice protocol for measurement and verification of new construction. This standard is referenced in LEED's measurement and verification credits..
USGBC’s Building Performance Partnership (BPP) engages commercial and residential LEED building owners and managers in an effort to optimize the performance of buildings through data collection, analysis and action. This partnership among USGBC and the thousands of LEED project owners will result in the population of a comprehensive green building performance database, enable standardization of reporting metrics and analytics, and establish new performance benchmarks. USGBC’s BPP participants are eligible for annual performance reports, report cards and real-time data interfaces to aid in their building performance goals. Together, USGBC and BPP participants will transform the way the world views building operations.
Sample LEED Online forms for all rating systems and versions are available on the USGBC website.
Documentation for this credit can be part of a Design Phase submittal.
The building is pursuing C&S certification and has a perspective tenant that may fit out the entire space. We are proposing to charge the perspective tenant the entire electricity bill minus the proration of the core and shell floor area.
building = 100,000 sf Core & Shell = 10,000 sf Tenant spaceTenant space is the area within the LEED project boundary. For more information on what can and must be in the LEED project boundary see the Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance. Note: tenant space is the same as project space. = 90,000sf
electricity paid for by the tenant to be (90,000/100,000) x entire bill.
We plan to install a centrally monitored electronic metering network, detailed guidelines to tenant, clear guidelines for tenant sub-metering per LEED CI, and corrective action strategy.
Our difficulty is determining if we need sub-meters for a building that may become a single tenant.
If the tenant is taking the whole building not sure why they would not just pay the whole bill. I don't think prorating based on area is an acceptable practice.
So that leads me to my next concern, does a C&S project that plans for a whole building tenant qualify for the Tenant Sub-Metering credit?
I understand that NC would be the most applicable rating system however at the beginning of the project, tenants were not known. The owner would love to fill out the entire building with this high profile tenant. As the LEED consultant we do not want to lose this 3 point credit.
I think it could. The point of the credit is to have the tenant pay their own utility bills as an incentive to use less energy. If they pay the bill for the whole building then that would work.
You certainly could combine the CS and CI scopes of work into an NC project.
As Marcus said the point is that core and shell space has to pay its own bill while the tenant/tenants has to pay their own bill. This is the intent of the credit.
My project is a co-working space for multiple companies. The tenants won't be assigned a fixed space to work in, and there are common spaces where anyone can sit down and work. Therefore, it will be almost imposible to provide a monitoring or metering system for each tenant.
Has anyone tried a successful approach for this type of project?
The point of this is to provide an incentive for the tenants to save energy. Are there other ways this could be accomplished that might be considered an alternative compliance path (ACP)? I would think along those lines. If you come up with something good it might be a LEED ACP some day.
We're designing an office building that the owner wants to provide flexibility in leasing, such that tenants can rent certain spaces in the floor, whole floors, or the whole building. The owner will pay the electricity bill of the building through a main meter provided by electricity company, and then he will let each tenant pay him based on submeters they will install at their spaces. The building has BMS infrastructure available. Can the project apply for this credit? Could it be included in the leasing agreement that each tenant shall install submeters once their spaces are defined?
Sounds like it would be eligible. You need to write a Plan for how the credit requirements will be accomplished. You will need to make sure you have the Reference Guide and follow the instructions for the content of the Plan. I would think that installing their own meters would be in the lease agreement.
Thanks for the reply Marcus, however after further discussion with the client, it turns out it would be illegal for the tenants to pay the owner for their electricity bill while he pays the electricity company at medium voltage (high level). So, the question is, if submeters are provided for monitoring purposes ONLY (they wont pay based on the readings but instead will pay a fixed amount based on area of the tenant spaceTenant space is the area within the LEED project boundary. For more information on what can and must be in the LEED project boundary see the Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance. Note: tenant space is the same as project space.), is the project still eligible for this credit? Because on page 322 of the reference guide it states that "In tests of commercial and residential situations, individual tenant responsibility for utility charges has resulted in conservation".
If the building is installing submeters for the tenants achieving the credit is easy. The main thing is to provide an M&V plan for tenant submeteringSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.g., the heating subsystem of an HVAC system).. The plan must describe the metering system, procedures on how to connect to the system, how tenants can comply with LEED CI EAc3 and most importantly indicate what will be the corrective actions taken in case energy savings are not met. Usually tenants are asked to pay the bill of their consumed electricity units because this makes them watchful of how much electricity they are consuming. By just paying a "fixed" amount tenants can consume as much electricity as they want without being concerned about the savings. The goal is that tenants should save energy.
I agree, the whole point of metering is to provide the tenants with an incentive to be energy efficient. Without paying based on usage I don't think you would be able to earn the credit.
Could the utility install meters for each tenant? That would be eligible.
An office building is being certified under LEED C&S. All leasable areas will be fed directly by the utility. They will be equipped with utility meters and the utility manager will invoice directly the tenant. Is this enough to comply with EA Credit 5.2?
I think so. The FAQ above indicates as much. You might want to check the LEED Interpretations to see if this has been addressed.
Are tenants obliged to share their energy data with USGBC for any period of time?
Having the necessary number and level of tenant sub-meters is not a problem (as the building developer will be installing them). However as we do not know all the tenants, we do not know if they will want to share their energy consumption data with USGBC.
MPR #6 requires sharing data for 5 years.
CS projects are treated no differently than other projects. You are obligated to get the data from the tenants and report the whole building data. If you can't do so then you will need to apply for some sort of exception.
Does anyone has a sample plan or any M & V plan which he/she can share with us here? I understand from the intent what the plan should include but also just want to see how the plan should look like in a written form. Thanks.
I don't have a sample to share but want to make sure you do not use just any M&V Plan for this credit. The Plan you develop for this credit is very different from the M&V Plan you develop for EAc5.1. There are many examples of M&V Plans for EAc5.1 that you can get online. Not sure about sample Plans for this credit however.
Thanks Marcus. Yeah I am aware that M & V for EAc5.1 is entirely different from M & V of EAc5.2. As you said there are a lot of plans available online for EAc5.1 but not for EAc5.2. That's why I am asking the members if someone has a plan he/she can share which will be useful to check.
Just making sure, this is commonly confused in LEED submissions.
The key elements of the Plan for this credit are as follows:
- a thorough description of the metering infrastructure
- information on the central monitoring and expansion/reconfiguration features
- If the submeters will be installed by the building owner indicate that in the description of the system.
- If the submeters will be installed by the tenant provide detailed guidelines and meter specifications for connecting to the system.
- Clear guidelines for tenants to earn the M&V credit in LEED 2009 for Commercial Interiors.
- A corrective action strategy.
As long as the Plan addresses these key issues you should be fine.
Thank you again for elaboration on this credit. I have read that the plan should actually include all what you said above but I want to see any sample for any project to have more idea on the details of each point. I feel it will help me a lot in making a plan for our project as the client is providing electricity meters to tenants which will be connected to BMS. Again, I would ask people here if someone can share a plan of his/her work.
Does the M&V Plan for EAc5.2 have to include what tool is being used to calculate the baseline energy use of the building? Also, is it even necessary to calculate the baseline for a Core and Shell to achieve this credit?
The M&V Plan for EAc5.2 is completely different than the M&V Plan for EAc5.1. There is no baseline energy use under EAc5.2. This credit is about installing the metering infrastructure for tenant spaces.
I'm seeing the credit achievement rate as 0% for this credit. Other achievement rates seem OK. Has nobody achieved this credit? Can this be verified?
The 0% must be a glitch. I do not know the rate but this credit has been achieved fairly frequently.
Do you know if we can apply for EAc5.2 without applying for EAc5.1? The Investor doesn't want to pay for the model callibration, therefore we will not apply for EAc5.1. Nevertheless we will install tenats' submeters, so we could try going for EAc5.2
I'm not sure how to determine energy savings without model callibration.
You can pursue 5.2 independent of 5.1.
I am working on a large Core and Shell project composed of office spaces and commercial centre (in France). The commercial centre is 5 stories high and occupied by one single tenant. The goal is to limit the number of sub-meters installed in the commercial centre.
The building has the following as energy supply:
1) District Heating System for Space Heating & Domestic Hot Water
2) District Cooling System for Air conditioning cooling
3) Electricity for external lighting, Cooling Electronic Fan coils, Cold storage plant, Fans / Ventilation (major), Lighting, Small Power, Outlets, elevators, escalators etc....
Can you confirm that we only need to meter the tenant electricity in order for this credit? Does that mean we only need one electrical sub-meter with a connection the BMS or does each department / use need to be connected directly to the BMS?
The building electrical system needs to have the capacity to submeterSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy or water use within a building attributable to specific end uses such as tenant spaces, or subsystems such as the heating component of an HVAC system. energy use by fuel use for each tenant. If the building could be split between multiple tenants in the future the system should have the capacity to be submetered. f you only have one tenant you only need to install one set of meters for each fuel.
Hello, we have CS office project. The main HVAC systems are central, there are only fan-coils and small local water heaters in tenant spaces. The electricity for fan-coils is relatively small in comparison with heat and cold emitted (where measurement is not required) and the FCUs logically belong to the central ventilation system. Is the measurement of FCUs in tenant spaces required?
We have an hi-rise office building with Chiller and AHUs system. We plan to 3 AHUs per floor.
1. My understanding is that we need to provided "only the central system" which allow tanant submeteringSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.g., the heating subsystem of an HVAC system).. Tenant can themselve install the meter (via leasing agreement). Am I correct?
2. What about cooling energy from the chillers? Is it OK to just write the method to estimate cooling energy using floor area and time of operation of each tanants. If we do not monitor this cooling component, it seems that we do not cover all "eletric" components although the cooling enegry will be reflect usage at chiller plants.
3. If we intent to go for EA5.1 as well, does it meet that we have to write M&V plan for 5.1 to cover all endyuse associate by tenants, particularly light and appliance load?
2. Only electricity is required to be metered (see page 322 in the Reference Guide).
3. Yes the M&V Plan under EAc5.1 must address the whole building energy use. You are calibrating the model you created for EAp2 which includes the whole building energy use.
For item#2, chiller also consume electricity and send the chilled water to the tenant spaceTenant space is the area within the LEED project boundary. For more information on what can and must be in the LEED project boundary see the Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance. Note: tenant space is the same as project space.. Based on what you replied, is it mean that chiller energy for tenant space does not require to proportionally submeterSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy or water use within a building attributable to specific end uses such as tenant spaces, or subsystems such as the heating component of an HVAC system. for each tanant to satisfy EA5.2?
Correct, no need to meter chilled water or the electricity it consumes for EAc5.2.
Thanks but if we decide to go for only EAc5.2 not EAc5.1, do we need M&V plan or just narrative explain the capability of main system for tenant submeteringSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.g., the heating subsystem of an HVAC system).?
They call it a M&V Plan in the credit language but this is not the same as the M&V Plan required for EAc5.1. Many folks assume that the Plan is the same for EAc5.1 and EAc5.2. The documentation requirements are spelled out in the credit form. It is essentially a narrative usually backed up with some information on the metering system installed.
In the project we have not a BMS system to monitor energy consumption but the electric company will be regularly measured.
Can I develop a spreadsheet monitoring of energy consumption, indicating the values that the electric company provide?
Thus to be able to achieve credit?
The credit language clearly says "centrally monitored". Manual meter reads entered in a spreadsheet does not sound like it meets this requirement. Perhaps if the electric company can provide the data on a regular basis for all the tenants one could claim that the data is centrally monitored by them? I can't really tell from your description what you will actually be doing.
I asked this because the concept of monitoring is "continuous monitoring." Not sure but I believe it does not necessarily need a system.
In this case the electric company would have measured the consumption of each tenant, and the building administrator would make a continuous control indicating these measurements in Worksheets.
Do not know if this is possible for us to serve the credit, but the monitoring station would be the electric company.
Not sure if that qualifies, I would check the LEED Interpretations on the subject to see if this issue has been raised.
Thank you Marcus.
I found nothing about this issue in LEED Interpretations.
So after some further reflection and reading the Reference Guide I think you could probably earn the credit with utility meters for each tenant. It certainly meets the credit intent and is in alignment with the EAc5.2 discussions in the Reference Guide.
I think it's possible too.
In the guide itself is said, to monitoring, is not obligatory to have a BMS system, but a monitoring of measured values for each tenant.
Thanks for the help!
Did you ever get this approved via GBCI review?
I am also curious to know if this compliance path was accepted by GBCI during review? I have a similar project, each tenant spaceTenant space is the area within the LEED project boundary. For more information on what can and must be in the LEED project boundary see the Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance. Note: tenant space is the same as project space. will be considered a separate unit with its own meters and utilities. Does this approach qualify and can the utility bill for each tenant serve as "continuous monitoring"?
I'm working on a project that has many storage modules that will be occupied by tenants.
We do not know how many modules each tenant will occupy therefore does not make sense we install meters on each module, because if a tenant occupying 3 modules, it will have 3 energy bills.
Can i leave the infrastructure for installation of meters on each module, and indicate in lease agreement the installation of meters for each tenant?
Another question is the following, it is mandatory that my measurement is connected to a BMS system, or can be manually?
Can we reach EAc5.2, without having reached EAc5.1?
EAc5.1 and EAc5.2 are not connected so yes you can earn one without earning the other.
For EAc5.2 you need to install the infrastructure needed to meter the tenants in the future. You do not need to have the meters installed as part of this infrastructure prior to the tenants occupying the spaces. Your system must have the capacity to meter different tenant spaceTenant space is the area within the LEED project boundary. For more information on what can and must be in the LEED project boundary see the Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance. Note: tenant space is the same as project space. configurations if they are not fixed. So the answer to your first question is yes.
The credit language requires a central monitoring system. So it does not have to be the BMS but it can't be based on manual meter reads.
For this purpose we would like to know if:
- In order to comply with requirements, can we develop a plan similar to the one use for the core & base building (calibrated simulation)? It will be a plan with the same structure, specifying what type of equipment needs to be installed by tenants, suggestions for metering points location, type of end use being measured, frecuency of inspection and consumption readings/recording. Since it is unknown yet the future tenant, it will be like a template where tenants will have to input their own information once know. For example: in the chapter about the calibrated simulation instead of including an actual simulation we would input requirements for the simulations and what needs to be included in it.
- Is it mandatory to create a sales agreement to enforce all tenants to comply with EAc3 for LEED-CI?
EAc5.2 is a different focus that EAc5.1. The plans are only vaguely similar. 5.1 is about verifying savings predictions. 5.2 is about installing the infrastructure that would enable the tenant to meter their energy use. The metering infrastructure must be capable of allowing the tenants to earn CI EAc3 but the tenants are not required to install the metering unless they are a CI project wishing to earn CI EAc3. There are no simulations required for this credit.
Thank you for the quick response Marcus.
We are a bit lost with this credit, just to confirm what we think is right:
- There has to be infrastructure that supplies consumption information to the building bms, that is the owner need to know how much energy tenant number 1, 2, 3 etcetera is consuming.
- In the particular case that only preparations are left then the tenant MUST be contractually obligated (sales/leasing agreement) to provide for the submeters. This is really typical in our area since a regular LEED-CS project is speculative office space and no one knows how many tenants there will be by the LEED design phase review.
- Only electricity consumption must be measured, that is one single consumption will be enough to comply with credit requirements
We are still unsure how the metering infrastructure will allow tenants to comply with CI EAc3.
- The infrastructure does not have to be tied to a BMS but it could be. For example, the plan could be to have utility meters on each tenant spaceTenant space is the area within the LEED project boundary. For more information on what can and must be in the LEED project boundary see the Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance. Note: tenant space is the same as project space..
- No. The tenants are not required to install the metering under CS.
- Yes just electricity with a single meter.
If a future tenant wishes to pusue CI, the basic infrastructure installed in the CS building must enable them to do so. This is primarily an electrical wiring issue and having a plan in place for how the spaces will be metered.
Thank you so much, it was really clear!!!!!
I'm working on a residential project that doesn't have a centrally monitored metering network. The only loads of the apartments are lighting and plug loads (no HVAC equipment).
However, the energy consumption will be measured for each tenant independiently by the local utility company.
So, I think the intent of the credit (keep tenants aware of their enery consumption so that they can make improvements) is being complied, isn't it?
Thanks in advance.
How are the units heated and cooled?
The residential units are naturally ventilated. The only spaces that have mechanical equipment are two spaces (playing area for kids and one gym), these are for common use.
Sounds like just metering electricity qualifies.
Yes, just the electricity from lighting and plug loads will be measured for each tenant and there is no a centrally monitored metering network. Do you think it's enough to earn this credit?
Assuming there is a house meter too that covers the spaces outside the individual units, it sounds like it would comply.
I am having lots of trouble with design teams in getting them to seperate internal lighting circuitry from plug loads. Question: Since ASHRAE 90.1 baseline plug loads energy use is identical to the proposed use, couldnt they be metered together for the M&V plan? Solely the lighting in the energy model would be calibrated with the difference.
The need to separate lighting and plug load for this credit has always baffled me. That table in the Reference Guide is the only place it is mentioned. Has anyone checked the addenda, interpretation, etc. to see if this has been changed?
Marcus, can you elaborate further on why it baffles you? How would the calibration of the ASHRAE baseline be affected by measuring lighting together with plug loads? I'm attempting to justify this point in a design review response. Thanks
EAc5.1 is the one in CS where you calibrate models and do a M&V Plan. For EAc5.2 it is just about submeteringSubmetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.g., the heating subsystem of an HVAC system). tenant energy use by fuel. The whole idea is to encourage tenants to pay for their own energy usage. As a tenant if you pay for it you do not ignore it and might be encouraged to do something about it. If the landlord pays for it then the tenant has no incentive to conserve or be energy efficient. So it makes no sense to me that you have to separate lighting and plug loads when the point of this particular part of this credit is tenant submetering by energy type not energy end use..
Your right. I'll ask the question in the eac5.1 forum.
We are confused as to what "centrally monitored" means.
Does it mean that the building owner must install wiring infrastructure to monitor each tenant individually from a BMS or can the wiring be dipensed with entirely?
A simple subtration of base building consumption from the total building energy consumption gives you the total energy use of tenants.
Isnt submetered energy use of the core enough to calibrate the energy model?
The purpose of this credit is to install the infrastructure needed to install individual meters for each tenant's space. If the tenants pay for their own energy use they tend to pay more attention to it.
Centrally monitored means that the metering data comes to a single location and can be read from that location. I suppose it could be a wireless system, sending a wireless signal from the sub-meter to the central monitor.
A subtraction as described will not enable individual tenants to be sub-metered. This credit does not require you to sub-meter by energy end use and calibrate the energy model, that is EAc5.1.
What is the purpose of measuring each tenant spaceTenant space is the area within the LEED project boundary. For more information on what can and must be in the LEED project boundary see the Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance. Note: tenant space is the same as project space. in terms of corrective actions though? If the building maintenance staff cant do anything about it, why do they need to know about each tenant?
If a tenant has his own meter and a monthly bill from the power company, he should be able to reduce his own energy use if his bills get too high.
Installing wiring infrastructure or wireless comunication from each tenant space to a central monitoring station is exceptionally expensive in high-rise buildings.
I agree that the corrective action related to energy savings part of the credit requirement language is confusing to me too. Perhaps the corrective action is intended to be taken at the tenant level but since there is no prediction of energy savings. Maybe this is explained in the Reference Guide.
I would think that if each tenant spaceTenant space is the area within the LEED project boundary. For more information on what can and must be in the LEED project boundary see the Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance. Note: tenant space is the same as project space. could be separately metered by the power company for each fuel type then you could make the case that it would qualify. They certainly have the means for central monitoring! You would probably need to show that the electrical system in the facility has been designed to allow for such separate meters.
In my experience the utility will not install a whole bunch of meters serving individual spaces so the owner submeters the building but pays the utility for the whole thing.
Is there an M+V plan template for this credit? There is a template for the M+V 5.1 credit.
Melissa, LEEDuser does not offer a template. We have found that there is a lot of variation between projects, and templates for this credit can lead projects down the wrong path. It's a tough one.
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