CS-2009 SSc7.1: Heat Island Effect—Nonroof

  • NC_Schools_CS_SSc7-1_Type3_CoolNonRoof Diagram
  • New or existing hardscapes?

    This credit is fairly straightforward and easy to achieve if you are newly creating all the hardscapes. You may comply by applying prescriptive design measures outlined by LEED to 50% of your site’s hardscape, or by covering 50% of your project's parking spaces. If, however, your project includes a planned or existing surface parking lot, replacing the existing asphalt or finding a cost-effective alternative to new asphalt may be challenging and can make this credit difficult to achieve.

    There can be added costs and labor if your project needs to modify existing hardscapes to meet the prescriptive goals of the credit: for example, taking out a black asphalt parking lot to install a more reflective material.

    When dealing with existing hardscapes, it may be more cost-effective to shade areas with trees and architectural canopies, or clean and restore them to their original condition, than to replace them. This credit can be unattainable if your project’s hardscapes do not already comply and you do not have control over the design of hardscapes. 

    Limiting your hardscape makes it easier

    Before working to treat the hardscape surfaces on your project site, don’t forget that the most effective way to reduce heat islands and help with this credit is to limit the amount of hardscape and parking spaces provided in the first place.

    Open-grid pavingLimiting hardscape not only reduces the square footage you must treat with light-colored paving, shading, open-grid paving, or covering, it can also help you gain points under:

    What’s “SRI”?

    The “solar reflectance index” or SRI is the measure of a surface’s ability to reflect solar heat. Higher reflectivity is desirable, because it helps combat the urban heat islandA densely populated area in which pavement and buildings absorb, store, and release solar energy, making the vicinity warmer than it would be if the pavement and buildings were not present. effect. SRI can range from zero to over 100, with darker surfaces closer to zero and lighter surfaces approaching 100.

    FAQs for SSc7.1

    I do not know the SRI value of my hardscape materials. What can I do?

    LEED requires specific SRI values based on product or material—no exceptions. Your first step is to try reaching out to your product manufacturers to obtain this information, or searching for any SRI values that might be applicable, if your material is generic. If this cannot be found, your next option is to send your material to a lab to be tested. Getting this data can be hard with existing materials other than concrete. Finding a similar product and comparing it to yours with images will not be accepted.

    How do I find a lab for getting SRI values? What will it cost?

    Look for laboratories that calculate SRI, or that test reflectivity and emissivity—once you have those values the LEED Online form will complete the calculation. Searching for labs using keywords like surfaces or optics may also be helpful. Make sure the lab you are using follows the reflectivity and emissivity testing ASTMVoluntary standards development organization which creates source technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services criteria mentioned in LEED. Testing could cost $500 to $1,000 per sample.

    I have a mix of various hardscape types with different SRI values. Can I apply a weighted average to see if my project complies?

    Yes, per LEED interpretationLEED Interpretations are official answers to technical inquiries about implementing LEED on a project. They help people understand how their projects can meet LEED requirements and provide clarity on existing options. LEED Interpretations are to be used by any project certifying under an applicable rating system. All project teams are required to adhere to all LEED Interpretations posted before their registration date. This also applies to other addenda. Adherence to rulings posted after a project registers is optional, but strongly encouraged. LEED Interpretations are published in a searchable database at usgbc.org. #5220 made on 07/30/2009, a weighted average is allowable similar to SSc7.2 for roof surfaces. The supporting weighted average calculator in LEEDuser's Documentation Toolkit section can be used to establish a weighted average for all hardscape materials used on your project.

    Should I use the SRI value of new or weathered concrete for my project?

    Concrete weathers over time and its SRI value goes down. Washing the concrete periodically during building operation is recommended. This LEED credit allows you to use the higher SRI value if the concrete is new. Old concrete should get a reduced value unless washed.

    What is hardscape? Is a gravel surface considered hardscape? How about artificial turf? Wood? Tennis courts?

    According to the LEED Reference Guide, "Hardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios." While this clearly demonstrates that gravel roads and paved tennis courts are hardscape, it leaves some gray area. LEEDuser is not aware of specific guidance relating to marginal surfaces like wood, turf, or pea-gravel, but when in doubt, we recommend considering any 'inanimate" surface hardscape, which would include all of those. This should be seen as an opportunity to meet the credit intent by using high-SRI materials.

    There is a reflecting pool on our site. What is the SRI of water? Should we include that in our calculations?

    No. LEED Interpretation #1412, issued 2/7/2006 sets the precedent here in stating that "Water features are excluded from the calculation."

Legend

  • Best Practices
  • Gotcha
  • Action Steps
  • Cost Tip

Pre-Design

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  • This credit is fairly straightforward to achieve: You may comply by applying prescriptive design measures outlined by LEED to 50% of your project site’s hardscape or by covering 50% of your project's parking spaces. 


  • Surfaces absorb and emit varying degrees of heat based on color and material. The photo shows four adjacent surfaces at the same time on a summer day in Chicago. The new black asphalt has the highest temperature at 126 degrees, while the new white concrete is almost 20ºF less, at 108ºF. Image – YRG SustainabilityIf you need to modify existing hardscapes to meet the prescriptive goals of the credit, you can face added costs. For example, demo of a black asphalt parking lot to install a material with a lighter SRI would be an added expense compared with resurfacing the same asphalt. When dealing with existing hardscapes, it may be more cost-effective to shade areas with trees and architectural canopies than to replace the hardscapes with lighter SRI material.


  • Examine existing conditions to help guide site plan development. Does your existing site have shading from trees, covered parking, or light-colored hardscape? Are there ways to minimize your project site’s hardscape and parking areas (including gravel, which is considered hardscape)?   


  • Define your project’s LEED boundary, and ensure that it is consistent across all credits pursued by your project. The LEED boundary defines the scope of work, and must include any land that will be disturbed and or used by your project.


  • Benefits of reduced hardscapeYou won’t find it in the credit requirements, but the best strategy here is to limit the amount of hardscape and number of parking spaces provided in the first place. This not only reduces the hardscape square footage you must treat with light-colored paving, shading, open-grid paving, or covering, it can also help you earn:


  • Explore ways to share parking with adjacent sites, and encourage carpooling and other strategies to reduce the amount of parking area needed.


  • Some strategies for limiting the amount of hardscape include: 

    • Share parking with adjacent sites, and encourage carpooling and other ways to minimize demand for parking.
    • Stack the parking— either underground or in a parking garage. 
    • Analyze anticipated site walking patterns to discover ways to minimize the length of sidewalks from parking lots to buildings. Place building entrances where people will need them, not far across expanses of sidewalk.
    • If there are existing trees onsite, look for opportunities to place the project’s necessary hardscapes adjacent to the trees to utilize shading and plant new trees and anticipate the shading that will be present in five years.

Schematic Design

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  • After you have reduced your parking hardscape as much as possible through reduced parking spaces, stacked parking, minimizing sidewalks, and other strategies, try the following steps to reduce heat island effect even further.


  • Option 1: Treat 50% of Site Hardscapes 


  • Determine the square footage of all non-roof hardscape on your site. You'll need to integrate the strategies below for 50% or more of this area.


  • Although an area of hardscape may meet two different requirements, the area can only be counted once. For example, pavement that is both light-colored and shaded may not be counted twice in credit calculations.


  • Shading by Trees and Vegetated Landscape


  • Explore integrating hardscape shading by trees.


  • Consult with a landscape architect to specify native and adapted tree species with large canopies. This strategy can reduce the number of trees that need to be planted, watered, and maintained—while providing the maximum shading potential.


  • It is helpful to plant trees in vegetated strips within hardscape areas to maximize the shading potential. Strips can be placed between parking rows, or as a vegetated buffer between surface parking and walkways.


  • Trees may be able to provide not only shade for hardscapes but also shade and wind protection for the building—potentially reducing cooling as well as heating loads in the building, and saving operational costs. 


  • When calculating the shading area of trees, you may need to use modeling software. Google Sketchup is a free, easy-to-use application that can help you determine shading area. (See Resources.) 


  • Treed shadow graphicTo determine the shadow cast by a tree, average the shadow area cast by the three time of day shown in the diagram.Shading is calculated on the summer solstice (June 21). Take the average of the shaded areas measured at 10:00 a.m., 12:00 p.m., and 3:00 p.m. 


  • Shading by Architectural Canopies or Photovoltaic (PV) Structures


  • Solar PV over parkingConsider shading parking with solar PV panels, which will also contribute to EAc1 and EAc2. Image – YRG SustainabilityExplore integrating architectural canopies with an SRI equal to or greater than 29, or photovoltaic (PV) canopies.


  • The shading area used for this requirement is equivalent to the footprint of the covering as seen from above (not the average shading angle as used for trees).


  • You cannot count shading cast from the building itself, as your project building does not cover non-building hardscape area from an aerial view. However, you can count canopies that protrude from buildings and shade hardscapes.


  • Architectural devices need to have an SRI of 29 or higher. This gives you a variety of light-colored materials to choose from. Get specifications from manufacturers as you choose materials.


  • Canopies, terraces, balconies, and other architectural devices are covered by the calculations for this credit if they do not have conditioned space below them. Coverings that have conditioned space below are considered roofs and are covered under SSc7.2: Heat Island Effect—Roof.


  • Shading using Photovoltatic (PV) panels is a great way to contribute to this credit, but the PV panels have the potential to create a lot of glare. Be sure to orient the PV panels in a way that does not affect building occupants or drivers (while still making sense from the perspective of exposure to the sun to generate electricity).


  • Installing freestanding canopies can be very cost-effective and will require little maintenance in the long run.  


  • PV canopies will have more of an upfront cost (that can often be offset with government incentives), but is a great way to install renewable energy onsite, contributing to EAc2: Onsite Renewable Power, without losing the functionality of your parking.


  • Light-Colored Materials


  • Explore integrating the use of light-colored hardscape material with an SRI value of at least 29.


  • SRI is the measure of a material’s ability to reject solar heat and is determined by a material’s light reflectance and heat admittance. For example, dark colors have values close to 0 SRI absorb most of heat they receive, while lighter colors have higher values and tend to reflect heat.


  • Obtain the SRI value of materials you are considering from the manufacturer.


  • For concrete and asphalt, you can use the following default SRI numbers from the LEED Reference Guide:

     


  • Power-washing old concrete can help restore it to near-new SRI values. For the purposes of documenting the credit, it is assumed that the material has the new value, unless existing hardscape is being used. For existing hardscape, you must either use the weathered value, or document that surfaces have been cleaned and lightened enough to be equivalent to the default SRI values.


  • Concrete has higher SRI values than asphalt and so is preferable for this credit. However, it is also generally more expensive than asphalt, but it is more durable and often has a lower life-cycle cost, as it must be replaced less often. This is especially true in high-traffic areas, turnarounds, and areas of heavy-duty vehicle use. If concrete can’t be used everywhere due to the price, use it selectively in high wear-and-tear areas.  


  • Open-Grid Paving


  • Explore using 50% pervious, open-grid paving.


  • Using open-grid paving allows water to infiltrate the ground, which could also help your project team achieve the stormwater management credits SSc6.1 and SSc6.2


  • Open grid pavingOpen-grid paving is different from porous paving—Open grid paving is laid out in a pattern that exposes areas of the ground allowing vegetation to grow in the open cells.  Porous paving is continuous paving that allows water to penetrate it minimizing runoff.  Porous paving alone without an open grid will not help you earn the credit, as you need the vegetation and its associated evapotranspiration help mitigate the heat island effect. Porous paving can qualify as a light colored material, however, if it has an SRI of 29 or higher. 


  • The open-grid paving itself should be at least 50% pervious and contribute to 50% of your project's hardscape areas.


  • Open-grid paving can be just as durable as other types of paving, but it may require additional maintenance to ensure that open cells do not become clogged.


  • Open grid paving is the most beneficial when it is applied on top of permeable soil that promotes infiltration. Soils with high clay content, or land with shallow bedrock may prevent water infiltration thus making open grid paving less functional.


  • Option 2: Cover 50% of the Site Parking


  • Determine the number of parking spaces needed for your project. Fifty percent or more of those need to be under cover—underground, under deck, under roof, or under the building. Parking roofs must have an SRI value of at least 29, or be vegetated, or be covered by architectural canopies or PV arrays (following the options listed above).


  • Consider locating parking underground, freeing up more site area for other uses, such as larger building footprints, open space, and landscaping.


  • If 50% of your project’s parking is underground or under the building, there is no parking roof requiring any SRI value. The building roof would be calculated according to SSc7.2 requirements even though the building covers parking spaces. 


  • If you use photovoltaic structures to shade hardscapes, they can count either toward shading hardscapes under Option 1, or shading parking spaces under Option 2—but not both.  Decide which compliance path you want the PV to fall under.  


  • Parking spots apply to all parking areas within the LEED boundary. Off-site parking outside the LEED boundary is not included in this credit.

Design Development

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  • Revisit your site hardscape area calculations to ensure that you are still meeting the requirement that 50% of the site hardscape is shaded, open-grid paved, or light-colored—or that 50% of the parking is under cover.  


  • Be sure to collect the SRI values for all hardscape materials you are planning to use toward this credit.


  • Create a site plan for the LEED submittal that clearly indicates the following:

    • For Option 1: Square feet of all hardscapes. This should be indicated for each type of hardscape material. Indicate the SRI value, shading area, and or open grid paving area on the plan for each hardscape type.
    • For Option 2: How many total parking spaces exist onsite, and how many are under cover.

Construction Documents

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  • Include any specific material properties and SRI criteria in the construction and landscaping specifications. 

Construction

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  • Ensure that the materials and landscaping are used according to your specifications for credit compliance.

Operations & Maintenance

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  • Include regular cleaning practices for hardscapes and coverings, especially for light-colored surfaces, as their SRI value will tend to drop, making them less reflective, as they get darker and dirtier. Committing to this is not required to earn the credit, but helps realize the benefit of it.


  • Include regular weeding practices for any open-grid paving, to keep the material durable and ensure that the spaces do not become clogged.

  • USGBC

    Excerpted from LEED 2009 for Core and Shell Development

    SS Credit 7.1: Heat island effect - nonroof

    1 Point

    Intent

    To reduce heat islands1 to minimize impacts on microclimates and human and wildlife habitats.

    Requirements

    Option 1

    Use any combination of the following strategies for 50% of the site hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios. (including roads, sidewalks, courtyards and parking lots):

    • Provide shade from the existing tree canopy or within 5 years of landscape installation. Landscaping (trees)

      must be in place at the time of occupancy.
    • Provide shade from structures covered by solar panels that produce energy used to offset some nonrenewable resource use.
    • Provide shade from architectural devices or structures that have a solar reflectanceAlso known as albedo: the fraction of solar energy that is reflected by a surface on a scale of 0 to 1. Black paint has a solar reflectance of 0; white paint (titanium dioxide) has a solar reflectance of 1. The standard technique for its determination uses spectrophotometric measurements, with an integrating sphere to determine the reflectance at each wavelength. The average reflectance is then determined by an averaging process, using a standard solar spectrum, as documented by ASTM Standards E903 and E892 index2 (SRI) of at least 29.
    • Use hardscape materials with an SRI of at least 29.
    • Use an open-grid pavement system (at least 50% pervious).

    OR

    Option 2

    Place a minimum of 50% of parking spaces under cover3. Any roof used to shade or cover parking must have an SRI of at least 29, be a vegetated green roof or be covered by solar panels that produce energy used to offset some nonrenewable resource use.

    1 Heat islands are defined as thermal gradient differences between developed and underdeveloped areas.
    2 The solar reflectance index (SRI) is a measure of the constructed surface's ability to reflect solar heat, as shown by a small temperature rise. It is defined so that a standardblack surface (reflectance 0.05, emittance 0.90) is 0 and a standard white surface (reflectance 0.80, emittance 0.90) is 100. to calculate the SRI for a given material, obtain the reflectance value and emittance value for the material. SRI is calculated according to ASTMVoluntary standards development organization which creates source technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services E 1980. Reflectance is measured according to ASTM E 903, ASTM E 1918, or ASTM C 1549. Emittance is measured according to ASTM E408 or ASTM C 1371.
    3 For the purposes of this credit, under cover parking is defined as parking underground, under desk, under roof, or under a building.


    Potential Technologies & Strategies

    Employ strategies, materials and landscaping techniques that reduce the heat absorption of exterior materials. Use shade (calculated on June 21, noon solar time) from native or adapted trees and large shrubs, vegetated trellises or other exterior structures supporting vegetation. Consider using new coatings and integral colorants for asphalt to achieve light-colored surfaces instead of blacktop. Position photovoltaic cells to shade impervious surfacesSurfaces that promote runoff of precipitation volumes instead of infiltration into the subsurface. The imperviousness or degree of runoff potential can be estimated for different surface materials..

    Consider replacing constructed surfaces (e.g., roof, roads, sidewalks, etc.) with vegetated surfaces such as vegetated roofs and open grid paving or specify high-albedoAlbedo is synonymous with solar reflectance. materials, such as concrete, to reduce heat absorption.

Organizations

ASTM

This is the organization that sets the testing standards for material heat emissivityEmissivity is the ratio of the radiation emitted by a surface to the radiation emitted by a black body at the same temperature. and reflectance that help determine a material’s SRI.


American Concrete Pavement Association

This national association represents concrete pavement contractors, cement companies, equipment and material manufacturers, and suppliers. See Albedo: A Measure of Pavement Surface Reflectance, R&T Update (3.05) (June 2002).


Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Heat Island Group

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory conducts heat island research to find, analyze, and implement solutions to minimize heat island effectHeat island effect refers to the absorption of heat by hardscapes, such as dark, nonreflective pavement and buildings, and its radiation to surrounding areas. Other sources may include vehicle exhaust, air-conditioners, and street equipment. Reduced airflow because of tall buildings and narrow streets exacerbate the effect.. Current research efforts focus on the study and development of more reflective surfaces for roadways and buildings.

Web Tools

Sketch-up

Use this software to model shaded areas from trees.


U.S. EPA, Heat Island Effect

This site offers basic information about heat island effectHeat island effect refers to the absorption of heat by hardscapes, such as dark, nonreflective pavement and buildings, and its radiation to surrounding areas. Other sources may include vehicle exhaust, air-conditioners, and street equipment. Reduced airflow because of tall buildings and narrow streets exacerbate the effect., its social and environmental costs, and strategies to minimize its prevalence.

Non-Roof Weighted Average Calculator

LEED BD&C allows projects with a mix of hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios. surface types (or projects with one hardscape type whose SRI is lower than the threshold but more than 50% of the total hardscape area) to demonstrate compliance through a "weighted" calculation, which can be performed with this spreadsheet.

Site Plan – 50% Parking Spaces Under Cover

Option 2

This site plan from a LEED project shows SSc7.1 compliance, with 50% of parking spaces located under cover.

Product Cut Sheets

Check the SRI index of products specified to earn this credit. The pavers in these examples have varying SRI values, some of which would contribute to the credit, and some of which would not.

SRI Calculator

This calculator produced by Lawrence Berkeley National Labs (LBNL) allows you to compute solar reflectanceAlso known as albedo: the fraction of solar energy that is reflected by a surface on a scale of 0 to 1. Black paint has a solar reflectance of 0; white paint (titanium dioxide) has a solar reflectance of 1. The standard technique for its determination uses spectrophotometric measurements, with an integrating sphere to determine the reflectance at each wavelength. The average reflectance is then determined by an averaging process, using a standard solar spectrum, as documented by ASTM Standards E903 and E892 index (SRI) and roof surface temperature based on solar reflectance and thermal emittance based on ASTMVoluntary standards development organization which creates source technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services standard E 1980.

LEED Online Forms: CS-2009 SS

The following links take you to the public, informational versions of the dynamic LEED Online forms for each CS-2009 SS credit. You'll need to fill out the live versions of these forms on LEED Online for each credit you hope to earn.

Version 4 forms (newest):

Version 3 forms:

These links are posted by LEEDuser with USGBC's permission. USGBC has certain usage restrictions on these forms; for more information, visit LEED Online and click "Sample Forms Download."

Construction Submittal

HardhatDocumentation for this credit is part of the Construction Phase submittal.

49 Comments

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Eleftherios Zacharakis Environmental and Energy Consultant WSP Group Sweden
Jun 24 2014
LEEDuser Member
56 Thumbs Up

Parking spaces provided to project building in another garage

Hi! Our project building is a major renovation and provides parking spaces in the garage of another building placed a block away and not being within the LEED boundary since it is not part of the project scope. As far as I know this can be accepted for alternative transportation credits. I wonder however if it can also meet the requirements for SSc7.1 and Option 2. Parking spaces are under cover. Any ideas?

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Maria Porter Environmental Certification Engineer, Skanska Sweden Sep 01 2014 LEEDuser Member 2475 Thumbs Up

I thought you could include reserved off-site parking. But scrolling through peoples comments here and under NC makes me think you can’t include them for this credit. However in the LEED Online form, table SSc7.1-4 indicates that off-site parking can be included (see the text where you enter total number of parking spaces provided). So I’m confused too, which is it?

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FABIO VIERO Head of Sustainability Manens-Tifs s.p.a.
Jun 19 2014
LEEDuser Member
627 Thumbs Up

SSc7.1 exemplary performance clarification

My project has 80% parking spaces under a Building (more than 3 floor are above the parking floor), hence SSc7.1, option 2 is achieved (Non SRI is required). The remaining 20% of parking spaces are underground and the roof is pedestrian hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios. including material with SRI <29.
Question:
Following LEED interpretationLEED Interpretations are official answers to technical inquiries about implementing LEED on a project. They help people understand how their projects can meet LEED requirements and provide clarity on existing options. LEED Interpretations are to be used by any project certifying under an applicable rating system. All project teams are required to adhere to all LEED Interpretations posted before their registration date. This also applies to other addenda. Adherence to rulings posted after a project registers is optional, but strongly encouraged. LEED Interpretations are published in a searchable database at usgbc.org. ID#2094 made on 05/25/2008, Ruling states: ”The project team is requesting clarification on the requirements for exemplary performanceIn LEED, certain credits have established thresholds beyond basic credit achievement. Meeting these thresholds can earn additional points through Innovation in Design (ID) or Innovation in Operations (IO) points. As a general rule of thumb, ID credits for exemplary performance are awarded for doubling the credit requirements and/or achieving the next incremental percentage threshold. However, this rule varies on a case by case basis, so check the credit requirements. for SSc7.1. The project team is correct - the Reference Guide states that exemplary performance for SSc7.1 may be awarded an innovation point for exemplary performance by demonstrating that, per option 2, 100% of the on-site parking spaces have been located under cover. In addition to the required documentation, a site plan verifying that 100% of parking is underground should be included. Applicable Internationally. “
Can the project achieve one point for exemplary performance since 100% parking spaces are located under cover (Non SRI is required).

Thanks in advance

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Alfonzo Collins
Jan 10 2014
Guest
10 Thumbs Up

combining SSc7.1 and 7.2

I am working on a commercial building with an underground parking lot. 100% of all parking spaces are in this lot. So I want to utilize Option 2, and go for the ID credit, for having 100% of parking spaces under cover. My question is: since the covering of the parking spaces is the building itself, if the building's roof has an SRI of over 78, can I count the roof toward both credits 7.1 and 7.2? This would really give me three points, due to the ID credit as well.

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Crissy Tsai Sustainability Coordinator, Webcor Builders Jan 13 2014 LEEDuser Expert 1003 Thumbs Up

Yes, if the building roof has a SRI over 78 on over 75% of the roof space, the project would achieve 3 points total.

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James Wieben
Nov 04 2013
Guest
109 Thumbs Up

SS 7.1 and Inovation in Design

My project has 100% of the parking located in a garage under the building. What is the process for claiming an ID point for this credit? I am unfamiliar with the term "Credit Assembler" that I was told I needed to use for Construction Credit.

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Crissy Tsai Sustainability Coordinator, Webcor Builders Nov 05 2013 LEEDuser Expert 1003 Thumbs Up

I am also not sure what you mean by "Credit Assembler". If you fill out the LEED online template for SSc7.1 at the bottom of the template, it will indicate whether or not you have achieve exemplary performanceIn LEED, certain credits have established thresholds beyond basic credit achievement. Meeting these thresholds can earn additional points through Innovation in Design (ID) or Innovation in Operations (IO) points. As a general rule of thumb, ID credits for exemplary performance are awarded for doubling the credit requirements and/or achieving the next incremental percentage threshold. However, this rule varies on a case by case basis, so check the credit requirements. on the credit.

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Raquel Clemente
Apr 12 2013
LEEDuser Member
87 Thumbs Up

Heat Island Effect - Nonroof in a Zero-Lot Building

We are working in the renovation of a zero-lot building in a city center, so the building footprintBuilding footprint is the area on a project site used by the building structure, defined by the perimeter of the building plan. Parking lots, parking garages, landscapes, and other nonbuilding facilities are not included in the building footprint. occupies all the construction site, we don't have site hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios.. The building has no parking.
Is there any way to qualify for this credit in this situation?

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Crissy Tsai Sustainability Coordinator, Webcor Builders Apr 12 2013 LEEDuser Expert 1003 Thumbs Up

Hi Raquel,

I do not believe you can qualify for this credit, because the project site is not meeting the intent of the credit.

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PAULA HIDALGO CEO EDIFICIOVERDE
Apr 09 2013
LEEDuser Member
112 Thumbs Up

Underground Parking - Site Size

What happens if I have a building whose footprint is considerably smaller in comparison to the site size and I have 100% of the parking sites underground, can I achieve the credit no matter the SRI of the paving materials of the site? I think that the credit intent might be lost if I don't install SRI compliant materials.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Apr 09 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Gabriela, this credit does not account for site size. You'll need to meet the requirements for the nonroof hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios. that you have.

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PAULA HIDALGO CEO, EDIFICIOVERDE Apr 09 2013 LEEDuser Member 112 Thumbs Up

I´m confused, the reference guide says for option 2 as follow: "Place a minimum of 50% of parking spaces under cover. Any roof used to shade or cover parking must have an SRI of at least 29, be a vegetated green roof or be covered by solar panels that produce energy used to offset some nonrenewable resource use.", but option 2 of the form leaves the chance to complete parking under cover with no reflective materials, and still comply with the credit.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Apr 09 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Yes, undercover parking is an option. I thought your question was whether a large site changed the requirements.

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Shenhao Li Atkins
Apr 08 2013
Guest
286 Thumbs Up

How to take account of the roof skylight with the calculation?

We have a high rise commercial office building project is going to pursue LEED CS certification. And I have two questions for the heat island effectHeat island effect refers to the absorption of heat by hardscapes, such as dark, nonreflective pavement and buildings, and its radiation to surrounding areas. Other sources may include vehicle exhaust, air-conditioners, and street equipment. Reduced airflow because of tall buildings and narrow streets exacerbate the effect. calculation need your kindly help:
1. This building has a 5 floor high atrium in the first floors and the top of the atrium will be glass skylights. this project will only have underground car parkings, can I apply for 100% car parking under cover for SS7.1 to get the ID point?
2. For SS C7.2 calculation, should I deduct the roof top skylight area from the total roof surface area?

Thank you very much!

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Crissy Tsai Sustainability Coordinator, Webcor Builders Apr 09 2013 LEEDuser Expert 1003 Thumbs Up

Shenhao,

1. Yes you can apply for 100% car parking and get the ID point as long as your roof material has a SRI> 29.
2. To calculate the roof areaRoof area is the area of the uppermost surface of the building which covers enclosed Gross Floor Area, as measured when projected onto a flat, horizontal surface (i.e. as seen in Roof Plan view). ‘Roofs’, or portions of roofs, covering unenclosed areas (e.g. roofs over porches and open covered parking structures) are not included in the areas used to evaluate compliance with SSc7.2, though they may be applicable to SSc7.1. subtract out any skytights and mechanical systems.

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Somsak Jidmon Senior Architect and LEED Consultant None
Mar 06 2013
LEEDuser Member
40 Thumbs Up

If we go to the option 2 in SSc7.1, do we need SRI>29 for road.

If we are going to go with option 2 of the credit SSc7.1 - puting more than 50% of car parking to under the building structure.
Can we achieve the credit without provide the exterior hard surface outside the building boundary to have an SRI more than 29 or permeable surface?

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Crissy Tsai Sustainability Coordinator, Webcor Builders Mar 07 2013 LEEDuser Expert 1003 Thumbs Up

Somsak,
If you are going with Option 2 - 50% of parking is covered, you do not have to provide exterior hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios. with a SRI of 29 or greater.

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Noriko Yasuhara Woonerf Inc.
Aug 09 2012
LEEDuser Member
1876 Thumbs Up

Solar Panels and selling energy

Hi,

The credit language says "Provide shade from structures covered by solar panels that produce energy used to offset some nonrenewable resource use."
Does this means that the solar panels generated energy must be used ON-SITE and panels that sell energy to the grid should not be counted?

Thanks in advance!

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Crissy Tsai Sustainability Coordinator, Webcor Builders Aug 13 2012 LEEDuser Expert 1003 Thumbs Up

HI Noriko,

No, the energy the solar panels generate do not have to be used on site. This credit is just looking for shading of the pavement, which the solar panels will provide.

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Mary Ann Santos
Jul 09 2012
LEEDuser Member
2308 Thumbs Up

Roof or Non-roof?

Hi All,

We are working on a high-rise office project that will sit on top of an existing structure. The existing structure (5-storey retail building) has a larger footprint compared to the proposed building.

We included the roof areaRoof area is the area of the uppermost surface of the building which covers enclosed Gross Floor Area, as measured when projected onto a flat, horizontal surface (i.e. as seen in Roof Plan view). ‘Roofs’, or portions of roofs, covering unenclosed areas (e.g. roofs over porches and open covered parking structures) are not included in the areas used to evaluate compliance with SSc7.2, though they may be applicable to SSc7.1. of the existing building to our project boundary where proposed landscape vegetation will be placed.

Should the top most floor (roof level) of the existing structure be considered as roof or non-roof in relation to the proposed high-rise office building?

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Crissy Tsai Sustainability Coordinator, Webcor Builders Jul 09 2012 LEEDuser Expert 1003 Thumbs Up

Mary Ann,

Does the landscaping vegetation cover a large percentage of the roof level of the existing structure? I would not consider it as a roof but see it as just outdoor spaces on a specific level.

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charles bell principal theGreenTeam, Inc.
Jun 22 2012
LEEDuser Member
795 Thumbs Up

Shade structure for SSc7.1

We have a large commercial project which employs four large square shade "umbrellas." (approximately 40 x 40 feet each). These umbrellas are collapse-able to be able to clean and to resist strong winds, etc. Can we count these? They are in the design to actually protect & shade the space, and are quite costly.

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charles bell principal, theGreenTeam, Inc. Jun 27 2012 LEEDuser Member 795 Thumbs Up

These are architectural structures approximately 30 feet tall, and will have SRI of above 29. What do you think? They are not the cafe type umbrellas.

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Crissy Tsai Sustainability Coordinator, Webcor Builders Jul 09 2012 LEEDuser Expert 1003 Thumbs Up

Charles,

I have never worked on a project that used shade structures like this. However, I would suggest that you include them in the calculation especially since you know the SRI value.

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charles bell principal, theGreenTeam, Inc. Jul 09 2012 LEEDuser Member 795 Thumbs Up

Thanks,
you should check them out SL-rasch.com.

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Caroline Ma
Feb 15 2012
Guest
291 Thumbs Up

Impervious hardscape area at podium

Is the impervious hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios. area at podium considered as the non-roof hardscape? If yes, the total nonroof hardscape for Option 1 calculation shall include the impervious hardscape area podium.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Feb 21 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Caroline, are you referring to an area that is underneath the building, or an area outside the building? Either way, I think you can include it as non-roof hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios..

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Alessio Zampaglione Architects StudioAZA
Jan 23 2012
Guest
722 Thumbs Up

Skylights are included in non roof hardscape surface?

Hi everyone,

I’m working on a project registered under LEED 2009 C&S Rating System. In my project’s internal courtyard, there are some skylights for lighting and ventilation of the technical rooms placed into the building basement. Am I required to count them through my non-roof hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios. surface calculation? I understood that skylights are not included in roof surface calculation, but I couldn’t find a similar exemption definition for non roof surfaces.

Thank you in advance!

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Crissy Tsai Sustainability Coordinator, Webcor Builders Jan 23 2012 LEEDuser Expert 1003 Thumbs Up

No I would not them in your non roof hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios. surfaces as they are just glass.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Feb 21 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Alessio, I would think about whether this area should be counted under SSc7.2 as a roof. It sounds like a green roof to me.

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Petr Lhoták Sustainability Consultant Skanska Czech Republic
Dec 01 2011
Guest
1802 Thumbs Up

What is wrong with the submittal template?

1) There is a bug in the template. It adds "square footage" and "number of parking spaces" together!

2) We stick with Option 2 (50% spaces under cover) and plan to go for EP, but it wants us to fill in the table of roof coverage and there I can see a problem.
Reference guide says: To earn exemplary performanceIn LEED, certain credits have established thresholds beyond basic credit achievement. Meeting these thresholds can earn additional points through Innovation in Design (ID) or Innovation in Operations (IO) points. As a general rule of thumb, ID credits for exemplary performance are awarded for doubling the credit requirements and/or achieving the next incremental percentage threshold. However, this rule varies on a case by case basis, so check the credit requirements. point put all the parking spaces under cover. Under cover means underground, under roof, under deck or under building. So far so good.
We have a 2-story underground garage, that is partially covered by building, vegetated surface and hardscapes. All garage spaces are in the underground so it should be a piece of cake, but... according to this template it is not so obvious.
When it comes to asphalt driveways on terrain (only drop off zone) it will hardly comply with SRI>29. Does it mean, that those parking spaces under the roadway do not comply and therefore we cannot earn EP? It is still in the underground... Question is, if the garage roof coverage (partially vegetated and covered with asphalt and hardscapes) which is in the same level with surrounding terrain should be considered as "roof". It has impact on other credits as well (SSc7.2, SSc5.1, SSc5.2...). Nothing seems to be as obvious as it was at the begining...

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Petr Lhoták Sustainability Consultant, Skanska Czech Republic Dec 14 2011 Guest 1802 Thumbs Up

... this is too long post. I'll cut it a bit.
What if "underground" garage footprint is larger than footprint of the building above terrain? Is the difference area between those two footprints considered a"roof" of the garage so SRI>29 rule applies here?

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Crissy Tsai Sustainability Coordinator, Webcor Builders Dec 19 2011 LEEDuser Expert 1003 Thumbs Up

Petr,

Sorry for not responding to this sooner. I believe you will not be able to include the parking spaces that are covered by SRI<29 material ie the asphalt. In the template you should input the different types of materials with the parking spaces it covers. Then enter the number of spaces covered by vegetated roof, and number of spaces underground.

Hope that helps.

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Ward Miller Chief Environmental Officer, Alpenglow Advisory Sep 05 2012 LEEDuser Member 540 Thumbs Up

CIRCredit Interpretation Ruling. Used by design team members experiencing difficulties in the application of a LEED prerequisite or credit to a project. Typically, difficulties arise when specific issues are not directly addressed by LEED information/guide #1964 dated 2/14/2008 states, "Roofs used to shade or cover surface parking in order to meet the Option 2 requirement, must have an SRI of at least 29. However, an SRI requirement does not exist for parking placed underground, under deck, or under a building, so long as the exposed parking surface area, if any, is less than or equal to 50 percent of the total parking surface area. ***The previous ruling for this CIR, dated 02/14/2008, has been overturned on 9/3/2008.*** Applicable Internationally."

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Emmanuel Pauwels Owner Green Living Projects s.l.
Jul 20 2011
LEEDuser Member
2375 Thumbs Up

shade

Can shade of the building itself be counted towards the credit?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jul 20 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

Emmanuel, architecture devices with an SRI higher than 29 are allowed, per the credit language above.

What sort of area are you thinking of?

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Mathilda Jonsson Environmental Certification Engineer (LEED AP BD+C) Skanska
May 11 2011
LEEDuser Member
925 Thumbs Up

Combining option 1 and 2

Hi
Of all 60 parking spaces only one is located above ground. We really want to put open-grid paving as material for this parking space that is not under ground. As we are so close we want to go for the exemplary performanceIn LEED, certain credits have established thresholds beyond basic credit achievement. Meeting these thresholds can earn additional points through Innovation in Design (ID) or Innovation in Operations (IO) points. As a general rule of thumb, ID credits for exemplary performance are awarded for doubling the credit requirements and/or achieving the next incremental percentage threshold. However, this rule varies on a case by case basis, so check the credit requirements. by combining option 1 and 2; using a material that compliance with option 1 and putting almost all of the parking spaces under ground wich compliance with option 2. The result is the same: reduce the heat islans effect. Do you think the project can earn exemplary performance by doing this?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Sep 02 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

Mathilda, I would say that this is a logical approach and should, in my mind, qualify you for EP. However, these two options are typically not allowed to be combined, so it's not a standard approach, and it may not work out. I would give it a shot and let us know how you fare.

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Erica Downs Sustainability & LEED Consultant
Mar 28 2011
LEEDuser Member
2159 Thumbs Up

Building footprint vs. hardscape

Would entry stairs to the building be considered part of the building footprintBuilding footprint is the area on a project site used by the building structure, defined by the perimeter of the building plan. Parking lots, parking garages, landscapes, and other nonbuilding facilities are not included in the building footprint., or part of the site hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios.? Thanks.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Apr 22 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

Erica, I could see it going either way depending on the design of the building, but probably in most cases the stairs would be site hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios..

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Mathilda Jonsson Environmental Certification Engineer (LEED AP BD+C) Skanska
Mar 17 2011
LEEDuser Member
925 Thumbs Up

All parking underground but one..

Hi!
My project has all parking spaces underground exept for one handicap parking that's situated at the court yard. We really want to go for exemplary performanceIn LEED, certain credits have established thresholds beyond basic credit achievement. Meeting these thresholds can earn additional points through Innovation in Design (ID) or Innovation in Operations (IO) points. As a general rule of thumb, ID credits for exemplary performance are awarded for doubling the credit requirements and/or achieving the next incremental percentage threshold. However, this rule varies on a case by case basis, so check the credit requirements. point and put all under cover. The landscape architecht wants to install an pergola over the parking space on the court yard. Does this count towards this credit?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Apr 22 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

Yes, the Reference Guide says that parking spaces must all be "under cover," so this is possible. It must have an SRI of at least 29.

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Mathilda Jonsson Environmental Certification Engineer (LEED AP BD+C), Skanska Apr 26 2011 LEEDuser Member 925 Thumbs Up

Thank you for your response. I wasn't very clear with my question; the pergola will have a roof of plants that will give the parking space shade. So that's why I'm concern, because the roof will not be "solid". However the reference guide says that shading from trees etc is ok, that's why I'm wondering if shade from plants on a pergola is ok as well.

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Sara Neff Director, Sustainability Programs Kilroy Realty Corporation
Jan 19 2011
LEEDuser Member
856 Thumbs Up

Heat Island Effect--Project Boundary

This may be more of a question about how to draw the project boundary in general, but here goes: we are doing a major renovation of a building, sitework, and some work (repaving, etc) on another building on the same campus that contains our parking garage but also has office floors that are not in our scope of work. This stacked garage is where everyone parks, so I am submitting us for Heat-Island Effect Nonroof. My question is: does that mean that I now have to include everything we are doing to the garage in the rest of my documentation? (e.g. does it get included in the energy model? Do I need to demonstrate that low-VOC paints were used on it? etc) It would be wrong to say at the end of the project that the building that contains the parking garage is LEED certified, and Core & Shell doesn't allow me to certify part of a building, so it seems odd that I'd have to include all of the work into the LEED work. Please advise!

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jan 20 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

Sara, I think the answer to your question is contained in the LEED MPR supplemental guidance, page 14 (under "Facilities (including parking) outside the LEED project boundary used for compliance with specific credits").

The answer as I read it is that you can pursue this credit without having to consider other credits.

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Brian Lucas
Jun 05 2010
Guest
41 Thumbs Up

Utilizing an existing parking garage

The project I am involved with now has no parking on site. It is all mandated by the city to use the parking garage a block away. Can this be used to achieve this credit, option 2 parking under cover or does the parking have to be handled on site?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jun 10 2010 LEEDuser Moderator

I would say that to meet the requirements of this credit, you would have to include the parking garage within your LEED boundary, which seems unlikely here.

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Reynaldo Castro
Apr 20 2010
Guest
1232 Thumbs Up

SRI Values

I have a question about determining the SRI values for our building's hardscapes. Generally majority of our parking is covered in either solar panels or light grey concrete. I was wondering how do we determine the actual SRI value of the building materials to be able to successfully input in the required templates for LEED Online?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Apr 24 2010 LEEDuser Moderator

Rey, please review the steps described in the Checklists tab for this credit, above, and let me know what specific questions you have. (That's simply a good place to start.)

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