EBOM-2009 SSc7.1: Heat Island Reduction—Nonroof

  • EBOM_SSc7-1_Type3_CoolNonRoof Diagram
  • Already-compliant projects have the easiest time

    The basic strategies for achieving this credit are: 

    • having light-colored hardscapes with solar reflectanceAlso known as albedo: the fraction of solar energy that is reflected by a surface on a scale of 0 to 1. Black paint has a solar reflectance of 0; white paint (titanium dioxide) has a solar reflectance of 1. The standard technique for its determination uses spectrophotometric measurements, with an integrating sphere to determine the reflectance at each wavelength. The average reflectance is then determined by an averaging process, using a standard solar spectrum, as documented by ASTM Standards E903 and E892 index (SRI) of at least 29; 
    • shading hardscapes with architectural devices, structures, or trees;
    • shading with solar panels;
    • using open-grid paving; 
    • or locating parking areas under cover.

    Most projects that pursue this credit already have one of the strategies in place before the performance period. Existing buildings that don’t have compliant hardscapes usually don’t end up pursuing this credit. The upfront expenses for altering existing hardscapes are fairly high, and teams often don’t find the benefit to be worth the cost.

    Covered parking is the most common

    The majority of projects choose to pursue this credit through the fourth option: locating at least 50% of parking spaces under cover.

    If the top level of a parking garage is not covered, it is not considered a roof and is not subject to requirement of having an SRI of at least 29. The parking spaces at that level are included in the calculation of total parking spaces, and would, naturally, count as uncovered.

    If parking is directly covered by a roof, like a carport for example, the roof surface must have an SRI of at least 29 and a cleaning program must be implemented to maintain reflectance. Alternatively, the roof surface can be vegetated or be covered in solar panels.

    Other strategies are more rare

    Some projects earn this credit with light-colored hardscape, but only rarely do projects try to demonstrate compliance using shading from trees or architectural devices. This option requires architectural drawings or modeling tools to document, so even you have adequate shading, you may not have these documentation tools at your disposal.

    PavementChoice of hardscapes makes a real difference in temperatures around the building, and regular maintenance is akey. Surface temperatures for the pavements shown here were measured, and the weathered concrete was 6 degrees hotter than the new concrete, while the new asphalt was 18 degrees hotter than the new concrete. Photo – YRG SustainabilityOpen-grid paving is also a fairly rare strategy for achieving this credit, as it is expensive to install and is not frequently found in existing buildings. Even if a building’s hardscape is at the end of its life and must be replaced, open-grid paving comes with a higher first cost than traditional hardscapes like concrete or asphalt due to additional engineering and construction costs. But if your project already has open-grid paving, this could be a viable option for you. It is most frequently used for parking areas or outdoor patio spaces.

    If you don't provide onsite parking facilities you can also earn this credit, provided that no nearby offsite parking facilities are leased or owned by the building owner, property manager, or tenants for use by building occupants.

    Consider these questions when approaching this credit

    If you answer at least one of the following questions with a “yes,” then it’s definitely worth investigating this credit further.

    • Do you already have underground parking or a parking garage?
    • Do you have concrete paving on more than 50% of your site’s hardscape? Concrete can meet the SRI requirement for hardscapes if cleaned at least every two years.
    • Are parking areas covered by any architectural devices or shaded by vegetation or solar panels?
    • Do you have open-grid paving?

    FAQ's for LEED-EBOM SSc7.1

    Our building doesn’t have any onsite parking. Can we earn this credit by documenting that we don’t provide parking to occupants?

    Yes, this is an acceptable path to credit compliance per LEED InterpretationLEED Interpretations are official answers to technical inquiries about implementing LEED on a project. They help people understand how their projects can meet LEED requirements and provide clarity on existing options. LEED Interpretations are to be used by any project certifying under an applicable rating system. All project teams are required to adhere to all LEED Interpretations posted before their registration date. This also applies to other addenda. Adherence to rulings posted after a project registers is optional, but strongly encouraged. LEED Interpretations are published in a searchable database at usgbc.org. #5370, as long as no nearby offsite parking facilities are leased or owned by the building owner, property manager, or tenants for use by building occupants. See the Interpretation for additional information on demonstrating compliance through this path.

    How can we calculate the SRI of our existing hardscape materials?

    The SRI compliance path generally isn’t feasible for projects that don’t already know the SRI of existing hardscape materials. If the SRI is unknown, you must send a sample of the material to a facility that can test to ASTMVoluntary standards development organization which creates source technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services standards, which is usually cost- and time-prohibitive for project teams.

    Many of our building occupants use parking that’s outside the LEED project boundary and is not owned or maintained by building management or tenants (for example, city-owned street parking or a parking garage owned by another property manager). Do we include these spaces in our SSc7.1 calculations?

    No, parking spaces that are not under your direct control should not be included in SSc7.1.

    We’re can’t earn this credit now but we’d like to when we go for EBOM recertification. How can reduce the heat island affect of our building’s site hardscape over time?

    Here’s some options to consider for reducing heat island affect:

    • Add vegetated islands to surface parking that provide both heat island reduction and stormwater infiltration benefits
    • Install open-grid paving in areas like walkways, patios, plazas, and courtyards as existing hardscape ages and needs to be replaced
    • When your surface parking lot needs to be repaved, consider installing a high-albedoAlbedo is synonymous with solar reflectance. permeable or porous paver system designed specifically for parking applications.

Legend

  • Best Practices
  • Gotcha
  • Action Steps
  • Cost Tip

Before the Performance Period

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  • Assess your project site to determine if any of the credit compliance options are feasible. The four options are: 

    • Install light-colored, high solar reflectance index (SRI) hardscapes—with SRI of at least 29
    • Shade hardscapes with architectural devices, structures, or trees
    • Use open-grid paving
    • Locate 50% or more of the parking area under cover
    • Shade with solar panels.

  • Projects that pursue this credit typically have one of the strategies in place before engaging in the LEED certification process. Due to the high upfront costs of converting hardscape to one of the compliant options, most existing buildings do not attempt hardscape alterations to earn this credit.


  • Zero-lot-line projects with no parking and no non-roof hardscape are not eligible to achieve this credit. However, most zero-lot-line projects will at least have hardscape sidewalks that may qualify under the option for high-SRI hardscapes. 


  • Shading from your own building or adjacent buildings can’t contribute toward achieving this credit.


  • Parking 


  • If you already have underground parking or a parking garage, you’re already on the easiest path to earning this credit—at virtually no additional cost. Most projects earn the credit using this option. Fifty percent of the parking must be under cover. 


  • For buildings with an open-top parking garage, the top level of parking is included in the total parking count, but is counted as not under cover. The top level is not counted as a roof and is not subject to the SRI requirements.


  • For parking structures completely located under the building, 100% of spaces are considered compliant.


  • Light-Colored Hardscape


  • Some projects earn this credit with light-colored hardscape, although it can be difficult to do if it’s not already in place.


  • Solar reflectance index (SRI) is the measure of a surface’s ability to reflect solar heat. Higher reflectivity is desired, because it helps combat the urban heat island effect. SRI can range from zero to over 100, with darker surfaces closer to zero and lighter surfaces closer to 100. Surfaces eligible for this credit must have an SRI of at least 29.


  • New asphalt has an SRI value of 0, and weathered asphalt has an SRI value of 6—so asphalt is not a good surface for earning this credit. However, you can try increasing the SRI value of asphalt through light-colored coatings, slurry, emulsion, or chip seals. See the LEED reference guide for typical SRI values of common hardscape materials.


  • Projects usually do not choose to apply light-colored coatings or sealants because the cost may not be worth the benefit when compared to other potential sustainability strategies. 


  • Concrete SRI valuesTypical gray concrete has a compliant SRI value of 38 when new, but to maintain its reflective properties and earn the credit, it must be cleaned (typically power-washed) at least every two years. This type of maintenance is generally manageable for most buildings.


  • Shading


  • PV shading parkingYou can contribute to this credit by shading parking areas with photovoltaic (PV) panels.The shading option, using architectural devices, solar panels, or trees, is not often pursued. Most projects either don’t have adequate shading or—even if they are close to compliance—don’t have the architectural drawings or modeling tools at their disposal to demonstrate compliance.


  • The shaded area from trees or landscape features is calculated based on the average shade provided at 10 a.m., 12 p.m., and 3 p.m. on the summer solstice. If vegetation is new, calculate the anticipated shading that will be provided after five years.


  • Shading planProject teams may be able to approximate the shaded areas using existing site plans, or they may consult with a landscape architect to determine the area shaded by trees and other landscape features.


  • Any architectural device that shades a hardscape, like a carport or canopy, must have an SRI value of at least 29 to contribute to credit compliance. Architectural shading from solar panels can also contribute to the credit.


  • Open-Grid Paving


  • Open-grid paving is paving that is at least 50% pervious.


  • If your project building already has open-grid paving, this can be a viable option. But this type of paving is rare in existing buildings and so it's not often used to gain this credit. 

During the Performance Period

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  • Run calculations to confirm that at least 50% of your project’s hardscape meets the credit criteria or that at least 50% of your parking is located under cover.


  • If using light-colored hardscapes to meet the credit, implement a maintenance program for cleaning these surfaces at least once every two years.


  • Use low-impact cleaning products or power washing in accordance with policies established for SSc2: Building Exterior and Hardscape Management Plan. Best practices include minimal use of cleaners, low-impact cleaning agents, use of electric-powered sweepers and manual tools, and periodic power-washing with water only.

  • USGBC

    Excerpted from LEED 2009 for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance

    SS Credit 7.1: Heat island effect - nonroof

    1 point

    Intent

    To reduce heat islands1 to minimize impacts on microclimates and human and wildlife habitats.

    Requirements

    Choose 1 of the following options:

    Option 1

    Use any combination of the following strategies for 50% of the site hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios. (including roads, sidewalks, courtyards and parking lots):

    • Provide shade from the existing tree canopy or within 5 years of landscape installation; landscaping (trees) must be in place at the time of certification application.
    • Provide shade from structures covered by solar panels that produce energy used to offset some nonrenewable resource use.
    • Provide shade from architectural devices or structures that have a solar reflectanceAlso known as albedo: the fraction of solar energy that is reflected by a surface on a scale of 0 to 1. Black paint has a solar reflectance of 0; white paint (titanium dioxide) has a solar reflectance of 1. The standard technique for its determination uses spectrophotometric measurements, with an integrating sphere to determine the reflectance at each wavelength. The average reflectance is then determined by an averaging process, using a standard solar spectrum, as documented by ASTM Standards E903 and E892 index (SRI)2 of at least 29. Implement a maintenance program that ensures these surfaces are cleaned at least every 2 years to maintain good reflectance.
    • Use hardscape materials with an SRI of at least 29 and implement a maintenance program that ensures these surfaces are cleaned at least every 2 years to maintain good reflectance.
    • Use an open-grid pavement system (at least 50% pervious).
    • OR

      Option 2

      Place a minimum of 50% of parking spaces under cover3. Any roof used to shade or cover parking must have an SRI of at least 29, be a vegetated roof or be covered by solar panels that produce energy used to offset some nonrenewable resource use. Implement a maintenance program that ensures all SRI surfaces are cleaned at least every 2 years to maintain good reflectance. The top parking level of a multilevel parking structure is included in the total parking spaces calculation but is not considered a roof and is not required to be an SRI surface.

      1 Heat islands are defined as thermal gradient differences between developed and underdeveloped areas.
      2 The solar reflectance index (SRI) is a measure of the constructed surface's ability to reflect solar heat, as shown by a small temperature rise. It is defined so that a standardblack surface (reflectance 0.05, emittance 0.90) is 0 and a standard white surface (reflectance 0.80, emittance 0.90) is 100. to calculate the SRI for a given material, obtain the reflectance value and emittance value for the material. SRI is calculated according to ASTMVoluntary standards development organization which creates source technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services E 1980. Reflectance is measured according to ASTM E 903, ASTM E 1918, or ASTM C 1549. Emittance is measured according to ASTM E408 or ASTM C 1371.
      3 For the purposes of this credit, under cover parking is defined as parking underground, under desk, under roof, or under a building.


      Credit substitution available

      You may use the LEED v4 version of this credit on v2009 projects. For more information check out this article.

    Potential Technologies & Strategies

    Employ strategies, materials and landscaping techniques that reduce the heat absorption of exterior materials. Use shade (calculated on June 21, noon solar time) from native or adapted trees and large shrubs, vegetated trellises or other exterior structures supporting vegetation. Consider using new coatings and integral colorants for asphalt to achieve light-colored surfaces instead of blacktop. Position photovoltaic cells to shade impervious surfacesSurfaces that promote runoff of precipitation volumes instead of infiltration into the subsurface. The imperviousness or degree of runoff potential can be estimated for different surface materials..

    Consider replacing constructed surfaces (e.g.. roof, roads, sidewalks, etc.) with vegetated surfaces such as vegetated roofs and open grid paving or specify high-albedoAlbedo is synonymous with solar reflectance. materials, such as concrete, to reduce heat absorption.

Technical Guides

Cool Alternative Paving Materials & Techniques

This site provides a description of strategies to increase the SRI value of asphalt and also includes cost data.

LEED Online Forms: EBOM-2009 SS

The following links take you to the public, informational versions of the dynamic LEED Online forms for each EBOMEBOM is an acronym for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance, one of the LEED 2009 rating sytems.-2009 SS credit. You'll need to fill out the live versions of these forms on LEED Online for each credit you hope to earn.

Version 4 forms (newest):

Version 3 forms:

These links are posted by LEEDuser with USGBC's permission. For more information, visit LEED Online and click "Sample Forms Download."

Underground Parking

Most projects choose to pursue this credit through locating at least 50% of parking spaces under cover. A parking garage plan like this one demonstrates credit compliance.

52 Comments

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Wendy Parker, LEED AP Manager of Safety & Environmental MetroNational
Jun 26 2014
LEEDuser Member
10 Thumbs Up

SS 7.1-4 LEED Online form issues?

Is anyone else having issues with filling in the Non-reflective parking spaces table in this form? Doesn't seem to allow me to fill in the first row number for "Number of spaces covered by roofing materials..."

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Michael Smithing Director - Green Building Advisory Colliers International
Nov 18 2013
LEEDuser Member
2013 Thumbs Up

Unpaved Parking

The reference guide indicates that parking should be included in the hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios. area - this is good because much of the parking at our project uses an open grid paving system. In addition to the parking behind the building we have an open lot with a mixture of asphalt road surface and compacted red clay. Open grid paving has not been installed. (The project is located in Bulgaria.)
Is anyone aware of guidance on how LEED treats unsurfaced parking?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Nov 18 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Michael, the credit requirments refer to parking lots as being included in site hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios.. I don't thinking that the type of surfacing affects how LEED considers this.

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Michael Smithing Director - Green Building Advisory, Colliers International Nov 19 2013 LEEDuser Member 2013 Thumbs Up

Tristan - Thanks for the quick response. My question really is whether I can count the area of the unsurfaced parking together with the area of the open grid parking. As the credit intent is to reduce the heat island effectHeat island effect refers to the absorption of heat by hardscapes, such as dark, nonreflective pavement and buildings, and its radiation to surrounding areas. Other sources may include vehicle exhaust, air-conditioners, and street equipment. Reduced airflow because of tall buildings and narrow streets exacerbate the effect., it would seem that clay or dirt surface would meet the credit intent 50% better than 50% impervious open grid parking.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Nov 19 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Michael, a clay or dirt surface that sees car and truck traffic will become compacted and not pervious. In my opinion it is not likely to comply with the credit requirements unless engineered to be pervious.

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Michael Smithing Director - Green Building Advisory, Colliers International Nov 20 2013 LEEDuser Member 2013 Thumbs Up

Tristan - You're likely correct, the other option is likely a field of mud. That said, I don't understand why there is an emphasis on pervious vs. impervious for this credit. There are many values to a pervious surface, but I don't see how the capacity of the surface to absorb water is related to the heat island effectHeat island effect refers to the absorption of heat by hardscapes, such as dark, nonreflective pavement and buildings, and its radiation to surrounding areas. Other sources may include vehicle exhaust, air-conditioners, and street equipment. Reduced airflow because of tall buildings and narrow streets exacerbate the effect.. Am I missing something?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Nov 20 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Well, we wouldn't want to fix one problem while causing another. And, I don't think there is a great emphasis on pervious vs. impervious. The credit language is about open-grid paving, which in many cases is paving that allows vegetation growth.

Another example in which the credit is multifaceted is in allowing shading from solar panels. Solar panels are dark and absorb heat, but offer other benefits, of course.

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Jaida Holbrook Enivronmental Engineer Skanska Sverige AB
Jul 26 2013
LEEDuser Member
713 Thumbs Up

Parking under building - still need SRI ?

My project is currently assessing which credits for EBOMv2009 can be achievable by reviewing the LEEDonline forms. For credit SSc7.1 the project will achieve compliance via Option 2. Parking Under Cover. In which the project has approximately 75% of parking underneath the building.

It is my understanding of the credit requirements that their will be no minimum SRI requirement as long as any exposed parking surface area is 50% or less of the total parking surface area. Which is applicable in this case.

Why does the LEEDonline form v5 still request:

-Establishment period - description of the maintenance program in place to ensure that SRI surfaces maintain good reflectance over time
- Performance period - it asks for confirmation that the maintenance program ensures that SRI surfaces are cleaned at least every 3 years

It would seem that those two requirements are not applicable. Should the project still update the maintenance program for roof SRI materials?

Although it should be noted that this project is in Sweden and it needs all the heat gain it can get! If the project has to comply with SRI values this credit is definitely unachievable.

Thanks.

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Crissy Tsai Sustainability Coordinator, Webcor Builders Jul 26 2013 LEEDuser Expert 872 Thumbs Up

Jaida,

Yes, it does seem not applicable given your approach to the credit. However,
I would include a description of the maintenance program and how the roof cleaning maintenance program entails.

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Trista Little Sustainability Manager, YR&G Aug 02 2013 LEEDuser Expert 1432 Thumbs Up

Hi Jaida,

You're right that those two requirements are not applicable to the option you're pursuing. When parking is located under a building or in a multi-level parking structure, the roof/top parking level do not need to meet any SRI requirement. Therefore cleaning isn't a requirement since the purpose of the cleaning is to maintain reflectance. You can write a brief statement in the form to note that since your parking is located under the building, no documentation of SRI or cleaning practices is required.

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Alexis Thompson Project Coordinator Sellen Sustainability
Jul 17 2013
LEEDuser Member
99 Thumbs Up

Subleased Parking Stalls

I'm working with a project that has 2 levels of parking underground (apprx 160 stalls) and an additional small surface lot that is less than half shaded/covered (apprx 30 stalls). The building subleases this surface lot to another building across the street, so occupants of the LEED Project Building are not allowed to use these stalls. However, it is part of our LEED Project Boundary. Is it possible to exclude these stalls since we cannot use them? If we have an argument for exclusion we would be able to qualify for exemplary performanceIn LEED, certain credits have established thresholds beyond basic credit achievement. Meeting these thresholds can earn additional points through Innovation in Design (ID) or Innovation in Operations (IO) points. As a general rule of thumb, ID credits for exemplary performance are awarded for doubling the credit requirements and/or achieving the next incremental percentage threshold. However, this rule varies on a case by case basis, so check the credit requirements.. Please advise. Thank you!

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Sep 08 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Alexis I think if they are in your project boundary you need to include them in the credit calculations. You should either exclude them from the LEED boundary or try to meet the credit intent for those spaces. Excluding them from your calcs just for this credit on a technicality doesn't stand the test of common sense and simplicity in my mind.

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Martin Vaclavik EC Harris
Jun 22 2013
Guest
29 Thumbs Up

Parking spaces under a bridge

The parking area of our project is mostly located underground but there are some parking spaces on the ground level. Based on our calculation we can meet credit Option 2 requirements. However, some of the ground level parking spaces are shaded by a traffic bridge. In my opinion, this might comply with under cover definition. Do we need to consider SRI of the road surface? We presume we need to provide shading analysis for this part of parking area on the summer solstice.
Thank you.

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Crissy Tsai Sustainability Coordinator, Webcor Builders Jul 31 2013 LEEDuser Expert 872 Thumbs Up

Martin,

I think your approach should work. Do you know the SRI of the road surface? Asphalt has a SRI of 0 and gray concrete has a SRI of 35. It should be sufficient if you provide a shading analysis for this section of the parking area without including the SRI of the road.

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Rosana Correa Director Casa do Futuro
Oct 18 2012
LEEDuser Member
359 Thumbs Up

Motorcycles parking space

In our project, some of the parking spaces are specific to motorcycles, with smaller areas than in car's spaces. The online form asks only for the number of covered spaces, but does not specify whether these are for cars or other vehicles. Does motorcycle's parking spaces count as much as car's for this credit?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Nov 23 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Rosana, parking spaces for motorcycles are a gray area in LEED for which there is not specific guidance, that I am aware of. I don't think the writers of the credit language were thinking of motorcycles. However, you could arguably count the spaces as much as cars, or perhaps it might be fair to count them at half value. I think I would consider it based on area.

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Chris Miller Chief Mechanical Engineer Design Alaska
Jun 19 2012
LEEDuser Member
831 Thumbs Up

parking lot shaded by low-SRI building

The parking lot is shaded by the building for much of the measured time, but the building is not "an architectural device(s) or structure(s) that have a SRI of at least 29". So, does that mean that this credit is impossible to achieve even though the parking lot is situated such that it does not contribute to the heat island effectHeat island effect refers to the absorption of heat by hardscapes, such as dark, nonreflective pavement and buildings, and its radiation to surrounding areas. Other sources may include vehicle exhaust, air-conditioners, and street equipment. Reduced airflow because of tall buildings and narrow streets exacerbate the effect.? Since the building and the hardscapes are treated by two different credits (7.1 and 7.2), it seems unbalanced to "ding" the parking lot for the builiding's low SRI.

If we planted trees in between the building and the parking lot, then a model would show credit-achieving shading, but in reality it would do nothing to reduce heat island. I hate even discussing such a wasteful point-hunting strategy, but I'm testing my understanding of the credit here (and, yes, whining a little bit about the potential silliness of this).

Does anyone know if there is a good, high SRI coating that can be applied to EPDM (years after initial roof construction)? If such a coating were applied to the building roof, then would both 7.1 and 7.2 be achievable in this case?
Thank you.

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Crissy Tsai Sustainability Coordinator, Webcor Builders Sep 04 2012 LEEDuser Expert 872 Thumbs Up

I don't know of a good high SRI coating that can be applied to the EPDM after construction. Unfortunately, the way the credits is worded I don't believe the GBCI reviewers would give you credit by claiming the building's shade reduces the heat island effectHeat island effect refers to the absorption of heat by hardscapes, such as dark, nonreflective pavement and buildings, and its radiation to surrounding areas. Other sources may include vehicle exhaust, air-conditioners, and street equipment. Reduced airflow because of tall buildings and narrow streets exacerbate the effect. of the parking lot. They are looking for specific strategies ie covered parking or high SRI values on the hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios..

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Chris Miller Chief Mechanical Engineer, Design Alaska Sep 20 2012 LEEDuser Member 831 Thumbs Up

Thank you Crissy. For new construction, I think siting the parking lot to the north of the building is a good SUSTAINABILITY strategy, but it seems that it may not be a good LEED strategy.

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Peter Doo President, Doo Consulting, LLC May 31 2013 LEEDuser Member 3103 Thumbs Up

I would like to reopen this discussion. Alaska, did you attempt to submit an analysis that shows that the parking is shaded during the required times (10, noon and 3 on June 21)? I agree that locating parking or other paved surfaces to the north of the building is a good strategy and should be recognized. Would welcome the comments of others.

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Johanna Ofner
Apr 19 2012
Guest
150 Thumbs Up

Offsite Trees

Much of the hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios. on my project is shaded by trees that are outside of our site boundary. Is that an issue?
Also, are gravel paths included in "Hardscape"?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. May 03 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Johanna, that shouldn't be an issue, since EBOMEBOM is an acronym for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance, one of the LEED 2009 rating sytems. is documenting existing conditions. Gravel paths are hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios., yes.

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David Tetro Principal & LEED-AP David A. Tetro - Architect P.C.
Apr 09 2012
LEEDuser Member
50 Thumbs Up

Existing Building for LEED on Campus - EBOM Path

I am working on a building for LEED Certification - it is one of several buildings on campus (the others are not going for LEED status at this time). The site's parking areas are more than 50% exposed (less than 50% underground, covered, etc.) The walkways around the building are concrete and other walks on campus are asphalt. There is a parking structure adjacent to the building that is concrete and the rmeaining on-site parking is asphalt - but the parking serves multiple buildings - so, how does one determine this point/credit for an EBOMEBOM is an acronym for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance, one of the LEED 2009 rating sytems. path while concentrating on only this building on the entire campus? What is the limit/extent of distance that we can go to that would allow us to count the walkways around and adjacent to the building as concrete?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Apr 10 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

David, the first thing I would review to get answers on this is the LEED Minimum Program Requirements supplemental guidance document from USGBC. Look for ths section on setting a reasonable project boundary, and in particular the guidance on parking serving multiple buildings.

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Jason McIntyre LEED Consultant Envision Realty Services
Feb 28 2012
Guest
148 Thumbs Up

Option 1 and Option 2 Combined?

I have a project that has a detached parking garage, of which has spaces on the top level (uncovered). I also have surface parking spaces on the site... So, I have covered spaces (37% of total), which fall into option 2 compliance, "parking spaces under cover." This obviously isn't enough for credit compliance... but the remaining spaces of the garage on the top level meet option 1, in that the material is gray concrete (maintained and cleaned) with an SRI 35. If I combine the covered spaces under option 2, and the top level spaces with SRI compliance, option 1, I then have enough spaces that meet credit compliance, which is just over 52%.

The LEED template doesn't want to let me do this, as it says, "Select one of the following" and has option 1 and 2. But I don't see why not? It still meets the credit's intent to reduce heat island effectHeat island effect refers to the absorption of heat by hardscapes, such as dark, nonreflective pavement and buildings, and its radiation to surrounding areas. Other sources may include vehicle exhaust, air-conditioners, and street equipment. Reduced airflow because of tall buildings and narrow streets exacerbate the effect.! I suppose I would have to select "Alternative Compliance Approach," or upload a completed "static sample form" with both options completed. Any input on combining the two options? Thanks!

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Emily Catacchio Sustainability Specialist, Wight and Company Apr 05 2012 Guest 7364 Thumbs Up

Jason,

Though I have not taken this approach, I think you've got it right. You should select Alternative Compliance Approach and upload a static form. I would also suggest including a detailed narrative and justification for using both options instead of only one. Let us know how this goes.

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Udana Ratnayake
Oct 13 2011
Guest
979 Thumbs Up

Granite for Paving

Has anyone proved credit compliance using granite as the paving material? what's the SRI of granite?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Oct 27 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

Udana, I don't have an SRI figure for granite, but I doubt it's reflective enough.

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JOHN COOK Campus Sustainability Coordinator University of California Riverside
Aug 30 2011
Guest
346 Thumbs Up

Shading of Hardscapes

We want to show that we are shading our hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios. but performing the necessary modeling of vegetation shadows at 10am, 12noon and 3pm on the summer solstice is proving difficult. However we do have accurate GIS aerial data that shows the canopy coverage over the hardscapes and from that we can easily determine the area shaded. Would this be an acceptable approach?

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David Posada Sustainability Manager, GBD Architects Aug 31 2011 LEEDuser Expert 17206 Thumbs Up

I have heard of projects using aerial photos to show compliance on large sites, but they indicated those photos were taken on summer solstice... seems like in some cases you would have to know the date and time of those photos to know if you are getting adequate shading.

I imagine you might need to create a composite image of the site plan and aerial photos to correlate the hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios. areas with the canopy areas. If the photos show a very extensive canopy cover of your hardscaping on a date and time that is reasonably close to those conditions you might be able to convince the reviewers that you meet the requirements, or you might try to get photos from several different dates and times.

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CY Ng Environmental Consultant
Aug 25 2011
Guest
72 Thumbs Up

Parking garage... outside project boundary

A separated 6-storey parking garage under the same management of our project building located next to our project site. There is a residential tower on top of the parking garage, which is managed by another company.The parking garage is opened to the public, but it is a truth that most of the office occupants use the parking garage as there are just a few parking spaces on ground level inside the project site boundary. . . If the parking garage is not included in our project boundary (coz it is separated from our building and a residential building on top of it), shall we still get SS c7.1 Heat Island EffectHeat island effect refers to the absorption of heat by hardscapes, such as dark, nonreflective pavement and buildings, and its radiation to surrounding areas. Other sources may include vehicle exhaust, air-conditioners, and street equipment. Reduced airflow because of tall buildings and narrow streets exacerbate the effect. – Non-Roof through “Parking under cover”?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Sep 02 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

CY, check the LEED Minimum Program Requirements Supplemental Guidance document for a better understanding of this. There are cases, particularly with parking, when you can have features outside the boundary contributing to credits.

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LEED Consultant Green Building and Alternative Energy Jul 09 2012 LEEDuser Member 1219 Thumbs Up

Hi Tristan, I read the MPR Supplemental Guidance Document, but have some doubts on its interpretation.

In my case, would an owner owned parking lot near the building butt outside the LEED Boundary need to be covered?

Lets say, within my LEED Boundary there are only 50 spaces, all underground, and nearby but outside the LEED Boundary the owner owns a parking lot with 150 uncovered spaces. Would I need to cover 50 of those spaces to meet this credit? Or do I already meet the credit with 100% of covered spaces?

The Supplemental Guidance mentions that facilities that meet conditions to be outside the LEED Boundary will not be considered for prerequisite, credit, or MPR compliance.

Does this mean they are not by themselves considered, or that whatever you do to them, they will not contribute to your project?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jul 09 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

I take back my earlier comment relative to SSc7.1, since this is not one of the credits specifically mentioned on page 24 of the MPR supplemental guidance, and because the guidance on page 25 doesn't seem to apply.

For other credits, though, note that the guidance says the facilities will be not be considered for "other" credits. So a piece of land could contribute to one of the specific credits mentioned.

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Omar Katanani
May 19 2011
LEEDuser Member
7598 Thumbs Up

No car park or external areas

Hello,

The project we are working on does not have any parking lots or Non roof hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios. surfaces (building footprintBuilding footprint is the area on a project site used by the building structure, defined by the perimeter of the building plan. Parking lots, parking garages, landscapes, and other nonbuilding facilities are not included in the building footprint. occupies all the site). Is this credit still achievable ? What do you think?

Many thanks,

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. May 19 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

I don't think you can earn the credit without any non-roof hardscape—doesn't meet the credit intent, and there is no compliance path.

I suppose if you really wanted to, you could go for a CIRCredit Interpretation Ruling. Used by design team members experiencing difficulties in the application of a LEED prerequisite or credit to a project. Typically, difficulties arise when specific issues are not directly addressed by LEED information/guide/alt compliance path, but no guarantees of success.

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Trista Little Sustainability Manager, YR&G Jun 14 2013 LEEDuser Expert 1432 Thumbs Up

I think this scenario comes up on quite a few projects, so I wanted to mention that there's a relevant LEED InterpretationLEED Interpretations are official answers to technical inquiries about implementing LEED on a project. They help people understand how their projects can meet LEED requirements and provide clarity on existing options. LEED Interpretations are to be used by any project certifying under an applicable rating system. All project teams are required to adhere to all LEED Interpretations posted before their registration date. This also applies to other addenda. Adherence to rulings posted after a project registers is optional, but strongly encouraged. LEED Interpretations are published in a searchable database at usgbc.org. for it. Interpretation #5370 rules that a building with no onsite parking can earn this credit in one of two ways:

1 - if no offsite parking spaces are leased or owned by the building owner, property manager, or tenants for use by building occupants, you can provide documentation of this and earn the credit. See the Interpretation for more info on what should be submitted for this compliance path.

2 - if offsite parking spaces are leased or owned, you can still document compliance by showing that 50% of the provided spaces meet the Option 2 credit requirements.

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Jason Smith erstad ARCHITECTS
Feb 14 2011
Guest
197 Thumbs Up

"Reasonable Site Boundary"

The MPR's state that "The LEED project boundary may not include land that is owned by a party other than that which owns the LEED project unless that land is associated with and supports normal building operations for the LEED project building." We have an urban project that is bound by sidewalks on three sides and a City owned alley on the fourth. The alley provides access to the trash and recycling containers for the building. Would the alley be considered land that supports normal building operations? If we don't count the alley the project can achieve exemplary performanceIn LEED, certain credits have established thresholds beyond basic credit achievement. Meeting these thresholds can earn additional points through Innovation in Design (ID) or Innovation in Operations (IO) points. As a general rule of thumb, ID credits for exemplary performance are awarded for doubling the credit requirements and/or achieving the next incremental percentage threshold. However, this rule varies on a case by case basis, so check the credit requirements..

Thanks.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Feb 18 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

I would exclude this alley, since it's city property. There is a relevant discussion on this under the NC MRc4 forum, about a sidewalk.

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Drew Wenzel
Aug 02 2010
LEEDuser Member
94 Thumbs Up

Underground Parking

I'm working on a project where about 75% of our parking is located under the building itself. The LEED manual says there is "no SRI requirement for parking that is underground... as long as any exposed parking surface area is 50% or less of the total parking surface area."

Does this mean it is not necessary for us to provide plans documenting surface-level hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios. areas and their associated SRI values? That is, documentation requirements will be satisfied if we supply plans documenting the number and location of the parking spaces?

Thanks!

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Aug 04 2010 LEEDuser Moderator

You're on track to earn this credit via Option 2. However, the credit language states taht any roof used to cover parking should have an SRI value higher than 29, or be vegetated or covered in solar panels, and there is space on the LEED Online credit form to enter this information. But—it's marked "optional."

If you're purusing SSc7.2, it seems like it would pretty much take care of the documentation needed here.

I would suggest you contact USGBC via LEED Online to ask them to clarify what is required documentation in your case.

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Ron Frank Associate, Terrasset Management Group Aug 17 2010 LEEDuser Member 218 Thumbs Up

We have a project in San Francisco where all the parking is underground for the building. Is this acceptable to receive the credit under SS Option 2 Path 4 for Heat Island EffectHeat island effect refers to the absorption of heat by hardscapes, such as dark, nonreflective pavement and buildings, and its radiation to surrounding areas. Other sources may include vehicle exhaust, air-conditioners, and street equipment. Reduced airflow because of tall buildings and narrow streets exacerbate the effect.-Non Roof?

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Jacob Arlein Director of Energy Services, Environmental Building Strategies Aug 20 2010 Guest 702 Thumbs Up

Ron,
Yes this approach should work, and their will be no minimum SRI requirement as long as any exposed parking surface area is 50% or less of the total parking surface area, which is usually the case for most underground parking.

Also, if 100% of the parking is underground, this will earn the project an exemplary performanceIn LEED, certain credits have established thresholds beyond basic credit achievement. Meeting these thresholds can earn additional points through Innovation in Design (ID) or Innovation in Operations (IO) points. As a general rule of thumb, ID credits for exemplary performance are awarded for doubling the credit requirements and/or achieving the next incremental percentage threshold. However, this rule varies on a case by case basis, so check the credit requirements. point as well.

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RASHID HAMEEN
Mar 25 2010
Guest
598 Thumbs Up

Calculating the hardscapes that are shaded

The guide requires that we need to calculate the shaded areas at 10 am, 12 noon and on 3pm on the summer solstice? My question is do we need to calculate on specifically on this day? what if June 21 doesn't fall during our performance period?
And when doing this in order to show the compliance are we required to plot an approved survey or a plot drafted by the team? Please forward your ideas on these problems..Thank you.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 25 2010 LEEDuser Moderator

Rashid, the reasons for using June 21st are that A) it's the day of peak insolation in the Northern Hemisphere,  and B) picking one date creates a uniform measure for all LEED projects.

This credit is more about calculating compliance of permanently installed features, rather than operating in a certian way during a specific performance period, so it doesn't matter whether June 21 falls during your Performance Period.

To show compliance you need to use an accurate site plan that is consistent with the plans used for other aspects of your project. Does that answer your last question?

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RASHID HAMEEN Mar 26 2010 Guest 598 Thumbs Up

yes, Tristan we can show compliance by drafting a plan. The issue came to our mind because the guide has specifically mentioned to do the calculations on solstice.
And the second questions was that the plan to drafted will it has to be approved by a licensed surveyor or will it be sufficient if our team plot the plan?
Thank you...

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 26 2010 LEEDuser Moderator

Rashid, the LEED Online credit form does not specify that the plan needs to be approved by a licensed surveyor, although having your landscape architect or professional engineer put their stamp on it would not hurt.

According to LEED Online, the following are the requirements for the site plan:

1) It was accurate as of the close of the performance period.
2) All non-roof hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios. areas within the LEED project boundary are highlighted.
3) Each portion of hardscape complying with any strategy in this submittal option is clearly marked and labeled.

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Nell Boyle
Mar 15 2010
Guest
521 Thumbs Up

Surfaces

Is a gravel driveway considered a pervious surface? Do you need to calculate a SRI for this area?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 15 2010 LEEDuser Moderator

I don't think a gravel driveway is considered pervious, unless it is specifically engineered and maintained to be so. Typically gravel gets packed hard in road situations and is pretty much impervious.

You would need to include it in your SRI calcs, or use one of the other sustainability criteria (shading?).

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Nadia Ayala Architect / LEED AP BD+C, KILTIK Consultoría May 15 2012 Guest 1130 Thumbs Up

Hi,

Would gravel landscape areas ( see picture http://goo.gl/PSkAX ) be considered as pervious areas? No cars run over it, so it doesn't get packed hard. In LEED InterpretationLEED Interpretations are official answers to technical inquiries about implementing LEED on a project. They help people understand how their projects can meet LEED requirements and provide clarity on existing options. LEED Interpretations are to be used by any project certifying under an applicable rating system. All project teams are required to adhere to all LEED Interpretations posted before their registration date. This also applies to other addenda. Adherence to rulings posted after a project registers is optional, but strongly encouraged. LEED Interpretations are published in a searchable database at usgbc.org. # 10113 the Ruling says "Aggregate and chat areas must be considered hardscapeHardscape consists of the inanimate elements of the building landscaping. Examples include pavement, roadways, stone walls, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios., and would count as open-grid pavement systems, for the purposes of this credit". Does this mean that we could avoid getting an SRI value for this material since its over 50% pervious? In Mexico, where the project is located, SRI testings are very rare and expensive.

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Emily Catacchio Sustainability Specialist, Wight and Company Jun 04 2012 Guest 7364 Thumbs Up

Nadia,

I would guess that GBCI will ask for an SRI for this space unless you can prove it is 50% pervious.

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Nadia Ayala Architect / LEED AP BD+C, KILTIK Consultoría Jun 05 2012 Guest 1130 Thumbs Up

Thanks Emily!

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