Waste management can occur through onsite reuse, as with this masonry material. Photo – Peter Craven, License CC BY 2.0.This credit rewards projects that implement the construction and demolition waste management (CWMConstruction Waste Management (CWM) diverts construction debris from landfills through the processes of recycling, salvaging and reusing.) plan developed in the corresponding Construction and Demolition Waste Management Planning prerequisite. Project teams have two options for credit achievement—either diverting waste from the landfill or reducing overall waste generated. Details on each option are outlined below.
Similar to LEED 2009, Option 1 focuses on diverting construction and demolition waste from landfills by finding alternatives, including recycling or salvaging (via reuse on site, donation for reuse on another site, or resale).
The credit requires teams to divert both a percentage of overall waste and a certain number of material or waste streams, giving two options for compliance. Path 1 requires 50% diversion of the total construction and demolition debris and at least three material streams. Path 2 requires 75% diversion and at least four material streams.
The LEED Reference Guide defines streams as flows of materials coming from a job site into markets for building materials. The online LEED Reference Guide video “Defining Waste Streams” provides additional information and states that a waste stream is defined by where the waste goes.
Typically a single material goes to a single waste stream. Image – USGBCTypically a single material goes to a single waste stream; however, there are cases where a single type of material could go to multiple waste streams and conversely, where multiple materials go to a single waste stream. An example of two waste streams for a single material type would be wood waste that is sent to both a power generation facility as fuel and to local building supply to be reused. An example of multiple materials counted as a single waste stream would be crushing site-separated asphalt, concrete, and masonry together for aggregate, which is considered onsite waste diversion.
An easy way to categorize your streams is to focus on the heaviest waste or the waste that generates the most volume. As a best practice, a material stream should constitute at least 5% by weight or volume of total diverted materials.
Teams must include collection and sorting methods as part of their CWM plans developed for this credit’s corresponding prerequisite. Depending on what is appropriate, projects may use a combination of onsite separation and commingled collection. In addition, teams may consider other waste stream diversion tactics like deconstructed materials sent to reuse markets, reuse of deconstructed materials, and take back programs from manufacturers.
In onsite separation, materials are sorted in dumpsters before they leave the site and are each counted as separate waste streams. Image – USGBCFor onsite separated ("source separation") materials, each type of material sent to a separate recycling facility counts as single stream. If, however, a single material is being diverted to several streams, each stream is counted separately. An example of two waste streams for a single material would be wood waste that going to a power generation facility as fuel and to local building supply to be reused.
Commingled recycling facilities must be able to provide project-specific diversion rates or an average diversion rate for the facility that is regulated by the local or state authority. Commingled diversion rates must exclude ADCAlternative daily covers are material other than earthen material placed on the surface of the active face of a municipal solid waste landfill at the end of each operating day to control vectors, fires, odors, blowing litter, and scavenging. Generally these materials must be processed so they do not allow gaps in the exposed landfill face.. Visual inspection is not an acceptable method of evaluating diversion rates.
For commingled waste, if itemized documentation such as a haul ticket or receipt is provided by sorting facility, then multiple waste streams can be counted. Image – USGBCIf the commingled recycling facility can track and produce documentation of specific materials recycled, you can count commingled waste as multiple waste streams. Otherwise, commingled waste sent to the same recycling sorting facility is counted as a single waste stream regardless of many different materials are included.
In a big change from previous versions of LEED, alternative daily cover (ADC) no longer qualifies as diversion. Any materials that are used for ADC must be counted as landfilled and your CWM plan must account for this.
Land-clearing debris materials that are natural (like rock, soil, stone, and vegetation) are not considered construction, demolition, or renovation waste. Consequently, teams should not include these materials in their calculations, although their CWM plans must account for these materials.
Similarly, teams must document the safe removal and disposal of hazardous materials in their CWM plans but exclude these materials in their calculations.
Incineration can be diversion, but only if reuse and recycling methods are not readily available in the project’s location and a team can demonstrate they exhausted these strategies before sending waste material to energy facilities. In those cases, waste-to-energy incineration may be considered diversion and it must be included in the CWM plan. Teams must follow European Commission Waste Framework and Incineration Directives and the waste-to-energy facility must meet the applicable European standards based on fuel type.
Note: The combustion of waste wood (“wood-derived fuel” or biofuel) is inherently considered diversion and not subject to the additional requirements for waste-to-energy incineration.
Teams may consider other waste stream diversion tactics like sending deconstructed materials to reuse markets, reuse of deconstructed materials, and take back programs from manufacturers.
Deconstructed materials can be donated to charity or sent to another project site. Much like commingled waste, donation also counts as a single waste stream unless the receiving organization can verify and track the individual materials that are donated. This is another example of a multiple material types constituting a single waste stream when additional documentation is not available.
For deconstructed materials that are reused onsite, no distinction is made between whether the materials are serving their original function or not. In this case, each material reused onsite for each purpose counts as a single waste stream.
Take back programs for single material types are single waste streams. Image – USGBCTake back programs are offered by product manufacturers who will accept shipments of materials removed during renovation and/or purchased overruns of their products. This type of waste stream is defined by the specific material type. For example, you would have two distinct waste streams if you had carpet sent to a take back program from a carpet manufacturer, and ceiling tile sent to a take back program from a ceiling tile manufacturer.
Similar to LEED 2009, teams can calculate the diversion rate by weight or volume as long as they are consistent. The diversion rate is calculated by dividing the total waste diverted from the landfill by the total waste generated by the project and multiplying the result by 100.
LEED v4 offers a new alternative to diversion: source reduction.
Option 1 will be fairly familiar to teams who worked on LEED 2009 projects and aside from defining material or waste streams should be fairly straightforward to document.
As an alternative to diversion, Option 2 will require teams to think about and plan for not generating waste in the first place, which is a new way of dealing with construction waste reduction for LEED. Option 2 directs teams to reduce total waste material and not generate more than 2.5 lbs/ft2 (12.2 kg/m2) of the building’s floor area.
Prefabrication, modular construction, or incorporating standard material lengths or sizes into the project’s design can all help reduce waste for this path to the credit. To get the most benefit, this option requires teams to plan for source reduction during design and implement it during construction.
Before using Option 2, teams should estimate the amount of waste for the project to determine if the performance threshold is realistic. If viable, teams should address the use of source reduction in their construction waste management (CWM) plan developed for the corresponding prerequisite to this credit.
Teams need to total up all construction and demolition waste generated including all offsite salvaged materials, all recycled materials, all landfilled material, and all incinerated materials. (Teams should not include materials reused onsite, which do not count as waste for Option 2.)
Solid waste conversion factors LEED Reference GuideAs Option 2 is written, this total needs to be provided by weight. Teams may need to utilize Table 2 Solid Waste Conversion Factors in the LEED Reference Guide for Green Building Design and Construction 2009 Edition as a resource.
Waste per area is calculated by dividing this total by the project’s gross floor areaGross floor area (based on ASHRAE definition) is the sum of the floor areas of the spaces within the building, including basements, mezzanine and intermediate‐floored tiers, and penthouses wi th headroom height of 7.5 ft (2.2 meters) or greater. Measurements m ust be taken from the exterior 39 faces of exterior walls OR from the centerline of walls separating buildings, OR (for LEED CI certifying spaces) from the centerline of walls separating spaces. Excludes non‐en closed (or non‐enclosable) roofed‐over areas such as exterior covered walkways, porches, terraces or steps, roof overhangs, and similar features. Excludes air shafts, pipe trenches, and chimneys. Excludes floor area dedicated to the parking and circulation of motor vehicles. ( Note that while excluded features may not be part of the gross floor area, and therefore technically not a part of the LEED project building, they may still be required to be a part of the overall LEED project and subject to MPRs, prerequisites, and credits.) and multiplying the result by 100.
Yes—teams must achieve both Option 1 (either Path) and Option 2.
To reduce construction and demolition waste disposed of in landfills and incineration facilities by recovering, reusing, and recycling materials.
Recycle and/or salvage nonhazardous construction and demolition materials. Calculations can be by weight or volume but must be consistent throughout.
Exclude excavated soil, land-clearing debris from calculations. Include materials destined for alternative daily coverMaterial other than earthen material placed on the surface of the active face of a municipal solid waste landfill at the end of each operating day to control vectors, fires, odors, blowing litter, and scavenging. Generally these materials must be processed so they do not allow gaps in the exposed landfill face. (ADCAlternative daily covers are material other than earthen material placed on the surface of the active face of a municipal solid waste landfill at the end of each operating day to control vectors, fires, odors, blowing litter, and scavenging. Generally these materials must be processed so they do not allow gaps in the exposed landfill face.) in the calculations as waste (not diversion). Include wood waste converted to fuel (bio-fuel) in the calculations; other types of waste-to-energy are not considered diversion for this credit.
However, for projects that cannot meet credit requirements using reuse and recycling methods, waste-to-energy systems may be considered waste diversion if the European Commission Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC and Waste Incineration Directive 2000/76/EC are followed and Waste to Energy facilities meet applicable European Committee for Standardization (CEN) EN 303 standards.
Divert at least 50% of the total construction and demolition material; diverted materials must include at least three material streams.
Divert at least 75% of the total construction and demolition material; diverted materials must include at least four material streams.
Do not generate more than 2.5 pounds of construction waste per square foot (12.2 kilograms of waste per square meter) of the building's floor area.
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