ND-v2009 SLLp1: Smart location

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  • USGBC

    Excerpted from LEED 2009 for Neighborhood Development

    SLL Prerequisite 1: Smart location

    Intent

    To encourage development within and near existing communities and public transit infrastructure. To encourage improvement and redevelopment of existing cities, suburbs, and towns while limiting the expansion of the development footprintThe development footprint is the total area of the building footprint and area affected by development or by project site activity. Hardscape, access roads, parking lots, nonbuilding facilities, and the building itself are all included in the development footprint. in the region to appropriate circumstances. To reduce vehicle trips and vehicle distance traveled. To reduce the incidence of obesity, heart disease, and hypertension by encouraging daily physical activity associated with walking and bicycling.

    Requirements

    For all projects

    Either (a) locate the project on a site served by existing water and wastewater infrastructure or (b) locate the project within a legally adopted, publicly owned, planned water and wastewater service area, and provide new water and wastewater infrastructure for the project.

    AND

    Option 1. Infill sites

    Locate the project on an infill site.

    OR

     

    Option 2. Adjacent sites with connectivity

    Locate the project on an adjacent site (i.e., a site that is adjacent to previously developedPreviously developed sites are those altered by paving, construction, and/or land use that would typically have required regulatory permitting to have been initiated (alterations may exist now or in the past). Previously developed land includes a platted lot on which a building was constructed if the lot is no more than 1 acre; previous development on lots larger than 1 acre is defined as the development footprint and land alterations associated with the footprint. Land that is not previously developed and altered landscapes resulting from current or historical clearing or filling, agricultural or forestry use, or preserved natural area use are considered undeveloped land. The date of previous development permit issuance constitutes the date of previous development, but permit issuance in itself does not constitute previous development." land; see Definitions) where the connectivity of the site and adjacent land is at least 90 intersections/square mile (35 intersections/ square kilometer) as measured within a 1/2-mile (800 meters) distance of a continuous segment of the project boundary, equal to or greater than 25% of the project boundary, that is adjacent to previous development. Existing external and internal intersections may be counted if they were not constructed or funded by the project developer within the past ten years. Locate and/or design the project such that a through-street and/or nonmotorized right-of-way intersects the project boundary at least every 600 feet (180 meters) on average, and at least every 800 feet (245 meters), connecting it with an existing street and/or right of way outside the project; nonmotorized rights-of-way may count for no more than 20% of the total. The exemptions listed in NPD Prerequisite 3, Connected and Open Community, do not apply to this option.

     

    Figure 1. Adjacent and connected project site based on minimum 25% of perimeter adjacent to previously developed parcels and at least 90 eligible intersections per square mile (35 intersections/square kilometer) within 1/2 mile (800 meters) of boundary segment adjacent to previous development





     
    Figure 2. Project site with through-street right-of-way intersecting project boundary at least every 600 feet (180 meters) on average






    OR

    Option 3. Transit corridor or route with adequate transit service

    Locate the project on a site with existing and/or planned transit service such that at least 50% of dwelling units and nonresidential building entrances (inclusive of existing buildings) are within a 1/4 mile (400 meters) walk distance of bus and/or streetcar stops, or within a 1/2 mile (800 meters) walk distance of bus rapid transit stops, light or heavy rail stations, and/or ferry terminals, and the transit service at those stops in aggregate meets the minimums listed in Table 1 (both weekday and weekend trip minimums must be met).

    Projects must meet the requirements for both weekday and weekend trips and provide service every day. Commuter rail must serve more than one metropolitan statistical area (MSA) and/or the area surrounding the core of an MSA (or a local equivalent for projects outside the U.S.) .

    Table 1. Minimum daily transit service

    Weekday trips Weekend trips
    Projects with multiple transit types (bus, streetcar, rail, or ferry) 60 40
    Projects with commuter rail or ferry service only 24 6



    If transit service is planned but not yet operational, the project must demonstrate one of the following:

    1. The relevant transit agency has a signed full funding grant agreement with the Federal Transit Administration (or equivalent national agency for project outside the U.S.) that includes a revenue operations date for the start of transit service. The revenue operations date must be no later than the occupancy date of 50% of the project’s total building floor area.
    2. For bus, streetcar, bus rapid transit, or ferry service, the transit agency must certify that it has an approved budget that includes specifically allocated funds sufficient to provide the planned service at the levels listed above and that service at these levels will commence no later than occupancy of 50% of the project’s total building floor area.
    3. For rail service other than streetcars, the transit agency must certify that preliminary engineering for a rail line has commenced. In addition, the service must meet either of these two requirements:
      • A state legislature or local subdivision of the state has authorized the transit agency to expend funds to establish rail transit service that will commence no later than occupancy of 50% of the project’s total building floor area.
      • OR

      • A local government has dedicated funding or reimbursement commitments from future tax revenue for the development of stations, platforms, or other rail transit infrastructure that will service the project no later than occupancy of 50% of the project’s total building floor area.

    Figure 3. Walking routes on pedestrian network showing distances from dwellings and Nonresidential uses to transit stops





    OR

    Option 4. Sites with nearby neighborhood assets

    Include a residential component equaling at least 30% of the project’s total building floor area (exclusive of portions of parking structures devoted exclusively to parking), and locate the project near existing neighborhood shops, services, and facilities (“diverse uses”; see Appendix) such that the project boundary is within 1/4-mile (400 meters) walk distance of at least five diverse uses, or such that the project’s geographic center is within 1/2-mile (800 meters) walk distance of at least seven diverse uses. In either case the qualifying uses must include at least one food retail establishment and at least one use from each of two other categories, with the following limitations:

    1. A single establishment may not be counted in two categories (e.g., a place of worship may be counted only once even if it also contains a daycare facility, and a retail store may be counted only once even if it sells products in several categories).
    2. Establishments in a mixed-use building may each count if they are distinctly operated enterprises with separate exterior entrances, but no more than half of the minimum number of diverse uses can be situated in a single building or under a common roof.
    3. Only two establishments in a single category may be counted (e.g., if five restaurants are within the required distance, only two may be counted).

    Figure 4.Walking routes on pedestrian network showing distances from dwellings and Nonresidential uses to transit stops





19 Comments

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Rita Barata
Sep 16 2014
Guest
3 Thumbs Up

SLL p1 -Smart Location

Hi Eliot,
Just looking at different hypothesis for new developments to be classified as LEED-ND, as one of the examples I can send you this link - http://www.dubaimaritimecity.com/
Would this for example would ever be able to fulfill the Smart Location requirement?

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Michael Smithing Director - Green Building Advisory Colliers International
Aug 21 2013
LEEDuser Member
2255 Thumbs Up

Counting Entrances for Transit Served Locations

I understand that each entrance to non-residential buildings must be counted separately. It is also clear that the entrance to an office building with multiple suites is counted once for each suite.

My question is whether each entrance to a non-residential buildings with multiple suites is counted multiple times. Our project includes a retail mall with several hundred retail units and multiple entrances on different levels. While the mall is clearly a focus of the project, the number of entrances multiplied by the number of entrances will be several times the number of other entrances in the entire project.

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Eliot Allen AICP, LEED AP-ND, CNU-A, Principal, Criterion Planners LEED Faculty, LP TAG Aug 21 2013 LEEDuser Expert 2331 Thumbs Up

Michael, the best way to approach this is by allocating the number of businesses in a mall to the mall's external entrances, eg a total of 100 businesses and six external entrances might have 50 businesses assigned to one entrance, and 10 businesses assigned to each of the remaining five entrances. Businesses can't be counted at more than one external entrance. So when calculating the percent of total business entrances walkable to transit, each entrance is weighted by the number of businesses accessed via that entrance. Also, if a project includes both dwellings and businesses, the threshold is 50% of the total, not 50% of dwellings and 50% of businesses.
Eliot

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Ammar Naji University of florida
Apr 25 2013
Guest
7 Thumbs Up

Previously developed

I am modeling LEED-ND using GIS for Hillsborough county in Florida, for Previously developedPreviously developed sites are those altered by paving, construction, and/or land use that would typically have required regulatory permitting to have been initiated (alterations may exist now or in the past). Previously developed land includes a platted lot on which a building was constructed if the lot is no more than 1 acre; previous development on lots larger than 1 acre is defined as the development footprint and land alterations associated with the footprint. Land that is not previously developed and altered landscapes resulting from current or historical clearing or filling, agricultural or forestry use, or preserved natural area use are considered undeveloped land. The date of previous development permit issuance constitutes the date of previous development, but permit issuance in itself does not constitute previous development." more than 1 acres it is mentioned "defined as the footprint", i didn't get it , so if i have a developed land larger than 1 acres do i need to look to MPR#7 even though MPRs do not apply to LEED for Neighborhood Development, or we can just consider any developed land more than 1 acres " previously developed" if it meets smart location Prerequisites

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Eliot Allen AICP, LEED AP-ND, CNU-A, Principal, Criterion Planners LEED Faculty, LP TAG Apr 26 2013 LEEDuser Expert 2331 Thumbs Up

Ammar, MPRs from other LEED rating systems don't apply to ND. For SLLp1 and other credits using the 'previously developedPreviously developed sites are those altered by paving, construction, and/or land use that would typically have required regulatory permitting to have been initiated (alterations may exist now or in the past). Previously developed land includes a platted lot on which a building was constructed if the lot is no more than 1 acre; previous development on lots larger than 1 acre is defined as the development footprint and land alterations associated with the footprint. Land that is not previously developed and altered landscapes resulting from current or historical clearing or filling, agricultural or forestry use, or preserved natural area use are considered undeveloped land. The date of previous development permit issuance constitutes the date of previous development, but permit issuance in itself does not constitute previous development."' status of parcels, the amount of previous development on parcels larger than one acre is equivalent to the total impervious area that exists or existed (defined in ND as 'development footprintThe development footprint is the total area of the building footprint and area affected by development or by project site activity. Hardscape, access roads, parking lots, nonbuilding facilities, and the building itself are all included in the development footprint.'), and any other land alterations associated with the footprint. Eligible alterations include construction or land-uses that would typically require permitting, but not clearing, filling, or ag or forestry activities.
Eliot

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Paola Figueiredo Director SustentaX
Jan 17 2013
LEEDuser Member
275 Thumbs Up

No public water and wastewater infrastructure in the City!!

Yes it´s true! How so, in an urban setting?

Our potencial LEED ND project that is situated in a small city within the metropolitan area of Recife, capital and largest city of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco, is facing this issue.

The project team is working on mapping out the “nearest” sewage system in order to prove that it’s miles and miles away… Connecting the project to public sewage infrastructure is completely unviable. So this would mean that no new project in the entire region can be LEED ND certified? The pre-requisite serves to encourage smart site selection, but in this case it’s just not a case of selecting; there are no areas to choose from in the entire city that would achieve the pre-requisite per se.

So as we see it, it’s a matter of responsibility. In this light, the developers plan to treat and reuse graywaterGraywater is untreated household waste water which has not come into contact with toilet waste. Graywater typically includes used water from bathtubs, showers, bathroom wash basins, and water from clothes-washer and laundry tubs, though definitions may vary. Some states and local authorities also allow kitchen sink wastewater to be included in graywater. Project teams should comply with the graywater definition established by the authority having jurisdiction in the project area. and blackwaterBlackwater is wastewater containing urine or fecal matter that should be discharged to the sanitary drainage system of the building or premises in accordance with the International Plumbing Code onsite, besides using efficient flush fixtures in order to reduce the volume of water used for sewage conveyance in the first place. Rainwater will be treated and used onsite by buildings as well. For potable waterPotable water meets or exceeds EPA's drinking water quality standards and is approved for human consumption by the state or local authorities having jurisdiction; it may be supplied from wells or municipal water systems., an onsite water treatment plant will treat groundwater from nearby wells to potable standards.

Is this approach acceptable in order to achieve the prerequisite, given the regional conditions? Somebody have any suggestions or approaches that you see more fit?

Our project team is concern about registrate the project and submit a SLL prerequisite review without a official response for this issue.

Thanks in advande for any help

Regards

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Eliot Allen AICP, LEED AP-ND, CNU-A, Principal, Criterion Planners LEED Faculty, LP TAG Jan 17 2013 LEEDuser Expert 2331 Thumbs Up

Paola, SLLp1 only requires that a project be located within publicly-operated existing or planned water and wastewater service areas, not that it necessarily has to be connected to those systems. The project's actual water and wastewater service can be provided by any combination of on-site or off-site technologies approved by local authorities. So it's a question of being located in a combined water/wastewater service area, not of being connected to those systems. Note that if it's a planned service area, the commitment to extend service to that area must be legally adopted by the system operator.
Eliot

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Meghan Bogaerts Manager, Neighborhood Development, U.S. Green Building Council Jan 17 2013 LEEDuser Member 739 Thumbs Up

Hi Paola,
I'd like to add one thing in regard to your comment about an official response. Your case sounds like it would be best served by submitting a CIRCredit Interpretation Ruling. Used by design team members experiencing difficulties in the application of a LEED prerequisite or credit to a project. Typically, difficulties arise when specific issues are not directly addressed by LEED information/guide to GBCI so that you can have a formal answer to the question (which can't be provided on LEED User).
Meghan

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Rita Barata Sep 10 2014 Guest 3 Thumbs Up

- Hi Paola, how did you sort out your question? I am curious.

- Hi Eliot, I also have a similar issue related with Smart Location.
But in my case, there are nearby developments, so I would like to consider the adjacent sites with connectivity. But not sure how to interpret/calculate the intersections. There are actually two nearby developments (less than 1km distance). Can I count both sites for the total number of intersections? I am not sure about the boundary measurements though (its not very clear). Also, this is the first approach, not yet planning to register for LEED ND certification, so I believe it will not be possible to submit a CIRCredit Interpretation Ruling. Used by design team members experiencing difficulties in the application of a LEED prerequisite or credit to a project. Typically, difficulties arise when specific issues are not directly addressed by LEED information/guide to GBCI. Would appreciate a better clarification regarding this possibility.
Thanks & regards
Rita

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Eliot Allen AICP, LEED AP-ND, CNU-A, Principal, Criterion Planners LEED Faculty, LP TAG Sep 10 2014 LEEDuser Expert 2331 Thumbs Up

Rita, to calculate connectivity for Option 2, first identify a segment of the project boundary that's adjacent to previous development, and has a segment length that equals at least 25% of the total boundary length. Second, delineate the area extending outward 1/2 mile perpendicularly from the boundary segment (a GIS buffer). Third, determine the land area of the external buffer, and subtract from that amount the area of any features listed in the definition of connectivity that can be excluded, such as water bodies. Fourth, count the number of eligible intersections in the buffer area using eligibility criteria in the connectivity definition (USGBC staff have also interpreted ineligible intersections to include those leading to freeway ramps, and alley-to-alley intersections; and they've interpreted eligible intersections to include ped/bike through-connections with cul-de-sacs, along with intersections leading to such cul-de-sacs and at the other end of such through-connections). Fifth, flip the 1/2-mile buffer to the inside of the project boundary and perform steps 3 and 4 for any existing internal intersections that weren't built or funded by the developer within the past 10 years. The sixth and last step is summing the eligible internal and external intersections, summing the net internal and external buffer areas, and dividing total eligible intersections by total net buffer area to see if the minimum 90 intersections/sq mi is achieved. Any portion of the two nearby developments you describe that fall within the 1/2-mile external buffer may have eligible intersections in those portions counted.
Eliot

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Rita Barata Sep 11 2014 Guest 3 Thumbs Up

Thank you so much Eliot.
I think actually more than 25% of the boundary is adjacent to the neighborhood development, now the question is: I am not yet sure about the neighborhood plan, as is not completely built yet, and it's from different developers. In this case being in a more advanced stage, does it count as existing neighborhood?

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Eliot Allen AICP, LEED AP-ND, CNU-A, Principal, Criterion Planners LEED Faculty, LP TAG Sep 11 2014 LEEDuser Expert 2331 Thumbs Up

Rita, sorry but when you ask if it counts as an existing neighborhood, I'm not sure which piece of geography you're referring to: 1) the ND project inside the boundary, 2) the external previous development immediately adjacent to the boundary, or 3) the half mile buffer area.
Eliot

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Rita Barata Sep 14 2014 Guest 3 Thumbs Up

HI Eliot,

I'm referring to the external previous development immediately adjacent to the boundary. But is not built yet, it's under construction. But it's from a different developer.
I'm afraid is a gated development, with security points. So this might make difficult the connectivity (even being adjacent), or impossible, right?

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Eliot Allen AICP, LEED AP-ND, CNU-A, Principal, Criterion Planners LEED Faculty, LP TAG Sep 14 2014 LEEDuser Expert 2331 Thumbs Up

Rita, so you have two items in play, the adjacent development that must abut at least 25% of your boundary, and the street intersections in that development that must reach 90 per sq mile. Both the development and the intersections must be "existing," which is defined in the rating system as being in place on or before the date of ND certification submission. External intersections that are not publicly accessible due to gating may not be counted. So once the construction you describe is complete, you'll be able to consider the adjacent development to be 'previously developedPreviously developed sites are those altered by paving, construction, and/or land use that would typically have required regulatory permitting to have been initiated (alterations may exist now or in the past). Previously developed land includes a platted lot on which a building was constructed if the lot is no more than 1 acre; previous development on lots larger than 1 acre is defined as the development footprint and land alterations associated with the footprint. Land that is not previously developed and altered landscapes resulting from current or historical clearing or filling, agricultural or forestry use, or preserved natural area use are considered undeveloped land. The date of previous development permit issuance constitutes the date of previous development, but permit issuance in itself does not constitute previous development.",' but you can't count any intersections behind gates.
Eliot

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Rita Barata Sep 15 2014 Guest 3 Thumbs Up

Thank you Eliot... Understood!

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Rita Barata Sep 16 2014 Guest 3 Thumbs Up

HI Eliot,
Now there is another development, in this case the new development is a peninsula, but is connected to the mainland. Is the water possible to consider "no land", and so the little connection is the 100% that is connected? Or should the water count as "land"?

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Eliot Allen AICP, LEED AP-ND, CNU-A, Principal, Criterion Planners LEED Faculty, LP TAG Sep 16 2014 LEEDuser Expert 2331 Thumbs Up

Rita, water can't be considered land under any circumstances, but I'm not sure I understand your question.
Eliot

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Rita Barata Sep 16 2014 Guest 3 Thumbs Up

This is what I meant... http://www.dubaimaritimecity.com/
So projects like this one can never be LEED-ND in any circunstances?

Thanks,
Rita

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Eliot Allen AICP, LEED AP-ND, CNU-A, Principal, Criterion Planners LEED Faculty, LP TAG Sep 16 2014 LEEDuser Expert 2331 Thumbs Up

Rita, it's definitely a unique geographic situation that probably can't qualify for Option 2, but you could always try a CIRCredit Interpretation Ruling. Used by design team members experiencing difficulties in the application of a LEED prerequisite or credit to a project. Typically, difficulties arise when specific issues are not directly addressed by LEED information/guide given the unusual circumstance. Or you could try another international neighborhood rating system that may offer more location flexibility, like BREEAMBuilding Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method, the first widely used green building rating system, developed in the U.K. in the early 1990s, currently used primarily in the U.K. and in Hong Kong. Communities, DGNB for Urban Districts, HQE for Urban Planning, or Pearl Community.
Eliot

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