Calculating FTEs

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Dec 08 2009 Guest
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We are still having trouble accurately calculating the FTEs for our multiple building project.

We have full time staff -working 8 hrs / day in offices on the site. They are listed as FTE Occupant.

We also have full time staff that only come to the site to use lockers and drop off / pick up vehicles and then leave the site. We are calling these staff Transients and estimating they are onsite only 1 hr / day. so if we have 80 staff that aren't really onsite full time we have: 80 x 1 hr per day = 10 transient staff. Is that correct?

How do we calculate visitors for conferences, etc? by the hours they would be onsite or just quantity of visitors and is that factored into the FTE Occupant count?
Thanks for any help anyone has to offer,
Kim

173 Comments

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Juan David Pres. CEO JCD ARCHITECT, INC
Feb 11 2014
LEEDuser Member
56 Thumbs Up

BLDG CLASSIFICATION

I'm having trouble classifying our ALF (Assisted Living Facility); is it a NC? or Healthcare? or Hospitality. It's a 3 Story, 80,000 SF, w/140 beds.
My closest choice would be "New Construction" -since it's not an Hotel and Assisted care for seniors wouldn't qualify as patients; would they?-,
Whatever the choice; then do I use NC 2009 or v4?
I'm very confused navigating all over and still no clear "light at the end of the tunnel"

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Susan Walter Sr Project Architect, Wilmot/Sanz Feb 12 2014 LEEDuser Expert 12216 Thumbs Up

You may go for healthcare but you do not have to. Here's the current definition of those projects that MUST use HC:

LEED for Healthcare: Hospitals that operate twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week and provide inpatient medical treatment, including acute and long-term care.

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Juan David Pres. CEO, JCD ARCHITECT, INC Feb 12 2014 LEEDuser Member 56 Thumbs Up

Well Susan,
This is the issue, the Assisted Living facility doesn't have patients...wacute and long term care...you see, so, the alternatives are NC and I don't think Hospitality qualifies either...so I guess NC is the only alternative.
If Tristan Roberts can give me his opinion it'll be great; then I register the Bldg.
Thanks a lot Susan!

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Eric Carter Intern Architect Method Studio, Inc.
Feb 10 2014
LEEDuser Member
38 Thumbs Up

FTE - partially occupied building

For our current project, the building will not be occupied to full capacity until about 5 years after substantial completion (25% of the project will be shelled. We are wondering whether we should calculate FTE based upon full occupancy, or merely to the extent it will be occupied once the initial phase is complete.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 07 2014 LEEDuser Moderator

Eric, I would calculate based on full design occupancy.

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Todd Bundren Associate Lawrence Group
Feb 10 2014
LEEDuser Member
783 Thumbs Up

Multiple Building College dorm project with dining

So I have a multiple building project with 2 resident halls and a dining facility. During the school year (approx. 273 days) has 572 students, 32 full time employees (including dining), 43 part time staff, and 600 visitors (including dining). During the summer (approx. 92 days) they have a sports camp for high school kids and summer students which drives up the potential residents to 2500 (staff remains the same). How would I determine the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. / visitor count? Do I put in the facility is open 365 days a year and just average all the residents / staff based on the summer vs academic year actual days? This is a bit confusing so any assistance would be greatly appreciated.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 07 2014 LEEDuser Moderator

Todd, it's a bit of an odd situation, but I think an averaged result makes a lot of sense.

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Todd Bundren Associate, Lawrence Group Mar 07 2014 LEEDuser Member 783 Thumbs Up

Thanks Tristan, I did the calcs and it seems to make sense. I will see what the reviewer thinks...have a great weekend.

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Irene Ng Boora Architects, Inc
Jan 23 2014
LEEDuser Member
17 Thumbs Up

Informal Space in a University Setting

Does anyone have any experience with having a large informal waiting space outside of classrooms and determining a transient load. There will be users using waiting in this space before and after classes. For permitting purposes we had to take a percentage of the classroom seats and apply it to the informal space. However, the number is quite high and the peak period of maximum occupancy is more or less 15 min at class changes.

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E H Sustainability Architect Jan 23 2014 LEEDuser Member 2300 Thumbs Up

Wouldn't you be double-counting the students if you added a transient load for the waiting area? If you have already accounted for the students, I doesn't seem like there would be an additional load for waiting area.

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Irene Ng Boora Architects, Inc Jan 23 2014 LEEDuser Member 17 Thumbs Up

I agree. However from the mindset of the permitting agency there could possibly be students using this informal space for study and linger for hours. It's a quite large waiting area with soft seats. I could assume zero, I would hate to run into the same problem as the permitting agent.

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Susan Walter Sr Project Architect, Wilmot/Sanz Jan 23 2014 LEEDuser Expert 12216 Thumbs Up

You need to keep in mind that the building occupancy for the fire marshal and others does not equal FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for LEED. Try thinking of the total time a student could be in the building. Talk to your client. It could be something like half the students come to class and leave afterwards so they are in the building for class plus transition time or about 90 minutes. Another quarter show up early or stay late to study and are there for class plus 2 hours for studying, etc. Your mileage will vary but once I learned to see transients from a farther perspective, LEED occupancy calcs got a lot easier. (Says she who loves to live in the weeds of things.)

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E H Sustainability Architect Jan 23 2014 LEEDuser Member 2300 Thumbs Up

That's a good point, Susan. Occupancy calculations for LEED are completely separate from occupancy calculations for Life Safety. The occupancy calcs for LEED focus on how people will actually use the building on a typical day or typical week. One should look at the building as a whole, and not at each individual space. Have a discussion with the owner to understand how many students will actually be in the building on a given day and how long they will be there.

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Nicole Kimoto Architects Pacific, Inc.
Jan 06 2014
LEEDuser Member
287 Thumbs Up

Calculating FTE

I have 3 shifts in a 24-hour period. In the first shift, I have a total of 410 occupants during first 2 hours of that shift. After that, the occupant load reduces to 260, reason being is that 150 of the workers in the building actually disburse to all their other actual shops outside of what will be this new facility. Could I count those 150 workers as transient or part-time because they physically are only in the building for 2 hours?

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Neetika Parmar
Jan 06 2014
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Hi, we are working on a

Hi, we are working on a residential project. I would like to know how do we calculate the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. and should we consider visitors and peak transients . Is there any guideline that we can follow ??

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Nicole Kimoto Architects Pacific, Inc.
Nov 25 2013
LEEDuser Member
287 Thumbs Up

Accurate FTE Calculation

I was looking throughout the forum and realized that everyone would make reference to an "8-hour shift". Would we count the lunch period as part of that 8-hours, and therefore it would actually be either a 9-hour (1 hour lunch) or a 8.5 hour (30-min lunch). Or do we not count lunch as part of the shift? Or maybe it doesn't really matter? I just want to be sure I am indicating correctly on my spread sheet the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. shift hours.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Nov 25 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Nicole, I think this would be based on employer policy. If the 8-hour shift includes a half-hour lunch, then the 8 hours seems to clearly = 1 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories..

If the shift does not include lunch and an employee is present for 8.5 or 9 hours then arguably the FTE number could be larger, although many people leave their place of work for lunch, and in any case it seems a bit of a fine-grained point. 

I would suggest not overthinking it, or using a common sense interpretation in a situation where the distinction is really crucial.

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Michael Johnson Architect Chenevert Architects
Nov 20 2013
LEEDuser Member
394 Thumbs Up

calculating fte for dummies

the LEED NC reference manual doesnt actually seem to have directions anywhere on how to arrive at FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. It makes reference to it as if its just innate human knowledge we are born with. The appendix has some info for core and shell, but its insufficient and also im left uncertain if it also applies to everything other than core and shell. the conversations below seem to be focused on specific cases.

How do we begin to go about this? does the owner/design team have to give us the number of employees that work at any given shift? or is it done by sq ft/occupant load? ad what about visitors ("transients")? im really need to start from the very beginning and do not see any fundamental info anywhere on this.

im clearly not aware of some critical document (?).

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Nov 25 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Michael, what specific questions do you have? 

FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. is basically a measure of occupancy and a project team should have some idea of occupancy (if they don't, they need to make an edcuated guess). So you are translating your idea of occupancy into terms of FTE. The definition of FTE (scroll over the text above) gives you some information on visitors, for example.

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Michael Johnson Architect, Chenevert Architects Jan 29 2014 LEEDuser Member 394 Thumbs Up

thanks Tristan. I guess the occpancy part isn't so bad. It's an office building open 9-5 with 35 employees.

the part im not as sure about (in this particular case) is that there is a training room. the training room might be used for visitors, and it might be used during 9-5, but also might be used in the evenings. a rough layout of desks in the training room suggest about 15 people could be trained in there. also, its uncertain how often the room will be used (once a week? three times a week? etc).im not sure how to incorporate this into the FTE

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Nicole Kimoto Architects Pacific, Inc.
Nov 15 2013
LEEDuser Member
287 Thumbs Up

FTE Calculation for 3 shifts?

I have a building that has 2 floors, each with 3 FT shifts, but with different personnel counts. I came up with an excel sheet, but I'm not sure if my ending calculation of the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for the building as a whole is the correct way? Or if I need to show FTE per floor separately. Here's what I came up with.

Shift 1 - 6:30am-3:00pm
shop (1st floor) ---310 x 8.5 (hrs/day) = 2635 (total hrs/day)
engineering (2nd floor) ---100 x 8.5 (hrs/day) = 850 (total hrs/day)

Shift 2 - 2:30pm-11:00pm
shop (1st floor) ---310 x 8.5 (hrs/day) = 2635 (total hrs/day)
engineering (2nd floor) ---60 x 8.5 (hrs/day) = 510 (total hrs/day)

Shift 3 - 10:30pm-7:00am
shop (1st floor) --50 x 8.5 (hrs/day) = 425 (total hrs/day)
engineering (2nd floor) ---30 x 8.5 (hrs/day) = 255 (total hrs/day)

FTE (M-F) 5 day work week
shift 1 --- 3485 (hrs/day) x 260 (# work days/yr) = 906,100 (total hrs)
shift 2 ---3145 (hrs/day) x 260 (# work days/yr) = 817,700 (total hrs)
shift 3 ---680 (hrs/day) x 260 (# work days/yr) = 176,800 (total hrs)
TOTAL HRS worked/yr----------------------------------= 1,900,600 (total hrs)
1,900,600 / 2080 (hrs of work days/year) = 913.75 = 914 (FTE)

Can someone help and tell me if I did this correct?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Dec 20 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Nicole, can you specify anything about the calculations you're not sure of? (Rather than having me check through all the figures.)

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Nicole Kimoto Architects Pacific, Inc. Dec 24 2013 LEEDuser Member 287 Thumbs Up

Hi Tristan, I was able to put together a spread sheet, which made it much easier for me to understand. thanks!

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A R
Oct 21 2013
Guest
11 Thumbs Up

FTE for College Athletic Facility

I am working on calculating the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.'s for a College Athletic Facility that has a minimal FTE but a significant Transient population between faculty and students. I am trying to located a good method on determining the PEAK condition assuming that it would be during an athletic event. Any advice is appreciated.

Thank you.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Nov 04 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

You know the project conditions better than anyone else—probably because the facility is replacing or updating an existing facility, or you have a peer facility that you know about.

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Ian McCall Environmental Engineer Le Sommer Environnement
Oct 07 2013
LEEDuser Member
82 Thumbs Up

FTE and Peak Transients for Luxury Commercial Centre

I am working on certifying a High-high end Luxury Commercial Centre. 80-90% of the clientele are rich foreigners and their purchases are very high-end luxury products. Hence most customers will never take a bicycle. Do these foreign luxury customers, need to be included in the secure bike space calculation?
thks,

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Susan Walter Sr Project Architect, Wilmot/Sanz Oct 08 2013 LEEDuser Expert 12216 Thumbs Up

The wealth or poverty of the building occupants is not a factor in their occupancy. Yes, they must be included. Keep in mind that not all credit are appropriate for all projects and this particular credit may fall into that for your project.

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Milena Petrosian
Sep 29 2013
Guest
9 Thumbs Up

Dear All, Im so confused!

Hi Everyone! If someone can help me please! Just opening another store with long hours. (cupcake shop, Polkatots Cupcakes). I have 5 employees. 3 Part-Time and 2 Full-Time. Cant seem to do the math for a 14 hour shift and a 16 hour shift. Can someone please help with "the formula"?? Thank you, i would really appreciate it!!

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E H Sustainability Architect Sep 30 2013 LEEDuser Member 2300 Thumbs Up

When calculating FTEs, basically you want to condense the 24 hr working day to an 8 hour working day. So . . .

3 employees working 14 hr shift -> (3 x 14) / 8 = 5.25 or 6 FTEs
2 employees working 16 hr shift -> (2 x 16) / 8 = 4 FTEs
Total FTEs = 10

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E H Sustainability Architect
Sep 05 2013
LEEDuser Member
2300 Thumbs Up

Calculating FTE for projects w/ 24/7 work week & shift overlap

I have been calculating FTEs for projects with shift work based on the 8 hour day and 40 hour work week. So, for example, if a project has three 9-hr shifts per day with 10 people per shift at 7 days a week, the FTE would be:
(10 people X 3 shifts X 9 hours X 7 days) / 40 hours = 47.25 FTE (48 FTE).

However, I have been questioning this becuase that 48 FTE calcuation is carried through to SSc4.2 for the shower calc and the WEp1 for the water usage calc. It seems that using the 40 hour base work week comparison unnecessarily inflates or double-counts workers by condensing 7 days of working to 5 days. For example, in the water usage calculation, you input annual days of operation for each Fixture Group. This will inflate the water usage because one should input 365 days of operation for the Fixture Group(as opposed to 260 for a typical 5 day week).

The SSc4.2 shower calc would seem to be inflated as well, although the weekend workers aren't double-counted like they are in the WEp1 form. I assume the shower calc is suppose to accommodate a typcial work day, but there will never be 48 people working on a typcial day at the facility.

So, I guess my question is, would it be more appropriate for projects with unusual shift work to look at typical 24 hr day, rather than a 40 hour work week? Thus the FTE would be:
(10 people X 3 shifts X 9 hours) / 8 hours = 33.75 FTE (34 FTE).

Any thoughts?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Nov 04 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

The definition of FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. allows you to divide by 8-hour shifts, rather than 40-hour weeks as is more often done. So I'd say that this calculations is fine.

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Elizabeth Felder
Jul 28 2013
Guest
72 Thumbs Up

Calculating Accurate FTE Value

The project is a high rise commercial building, going for EBOMEBOM is an acronym for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance, one of the LEED 2009 rating sytems. certification. The number we have for FTEs is outdated, as of about a year ago. Management has changed since this number was confirmed and the building has increased in occupancy by about 10%. Does anyone have any ways of going about finding an accurate head count? Thank you!

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Louise Schlatter Architect, SSOE Group Jul 30 2013 LEEDuser Member 667 Thumbs Up

Does the building have some form of security?

After practically standing on my head to convince various heads of security that names were not needed, I have been successful in getting people-hours from various security records for one month, three months, and one year. This works simply if your building is primarily an 8 to 5 operation. It is a little more complicated if your building is a 24/7 or something in between. Ask security if they can refine their data by time periods. This works, but you need a calculatation strategy and you need to explain to the reviewers how you are calculating FTE.

It was just by luck, the three month data came to me broken down by hour. We defined the largest shift and the effective total number of users. The rest is history. :)

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Elizabeth Felder Jul 30 2013 Guest 72 Thumbs Up

Hi Lousie -

Yes, the building is a typical office with 8-5 operations. The building does have a security desk and staff, however, building occupants seem to rarely scan their access cards in order to enter the building (past the elevator lobby). Unfortunately, I don't believe security has data or records of all foot traffic and if so, it would be a much smaller number than what is accurate because of this.

The most recent FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. value we have for the building is from a year ago. I'm wondering if there is any way to estimate, based on the amount of additional leased space (say, 60% leased at 1200 occupants, but now 80% leased) or another calculation - since we have stacking plans from both of these eras.

I'm glad to hear the security strategy worked for your team! I wish that were the case for us as well!

Thank you.

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Louise Schlatter Architect, SSOE Group Jul 31 2013 LEEDuser Member 667 Thumbs Up

Elizabeth,

Sorry the security data strategy isn’t going to work for you.

So. On to Plan B.
When faced with a dilemma where the explicit instructions for LEED does not match one’s actual condition, find a logical approach that addresses the intent and explain your approach to the reviewers. If it is critical to your approach to LEED documentation, you may want to make a USGBC/GBCI formal inquiry process.

If the situation really is a straight percentage increase, then a simple calculation using the ratio of the new to the old percentage times the old number of occupants might suit. That would be (80%/60%) x 1200 = 1600 occupants.

If you need a more granular response, a BOMA approach (you can reference ANSI/BOMA Z65.3) may fit best. This approach is also similar to that used in architectural programming.
1. Take the total gross leasable area (GLA), say 400,000 sf, and multiply it by the known leased percentage. This should match and be your gross leased square feet: 400,000 sf GLA x 60% = 240,000 sf gross leased square feet.
2. Divide the number of gross leased square feet by the number of occupants to get average number of GLA per occupant for this building. In this example, 240,000 sf gross leased square feet / 1200 occupants = 200 GLA/occupant.
3. Divide the updated number of gross leased square feet by the average GLA/occupant to get a calculated number of occupants. In this example, use 320,000 sf as the new gross leased square feet: 320,000 sf / 200 GLA/occupant = 1600 occupants.

Our friends at the USGBC/GBCI are generally pretty reasonable. Make sure you are focusing on the intent, clearly explain your approach and why it meets the intent. Vet your strategy using the formal inquiry process, when it seems prudent. And you should be fine.

My question is how are you going to handle transients?

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Cristina Algaze Architect. LEED AP BD+C.
Jun 04 2013
LEEDuser Member
24 Thumbs Up

FTE for a Kinder-6thGrade school in LEED New Construction v2.2

LEED NC v2.2 is not as specific as LEED for Schools v3 for the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. in schools.

It seems that for different credits, different FTEs may be reasonable in this building type.

First: SSc4.2 > For bicycles racks I chose to follow LEED for Schools v3 calculations where students from kinder to 3rd grade are not expected to use bikes and are excluded from calculations.

Second: WEc2&c3 > For potable waterPotable water meets or exceeds EPA's drinking water quality standards and is approved for human consumption by the state or local authorities having jurisdiction; it may be supplied from wells or municipal water systems. consumption LEED NC v2.2 clearly states students as transients that have less daily uses than FTEs. It seems to me that these students that are from 8:00am to 2:00pm will have the same daily uses than a full time occupant.

Questions.

1. Is my FTE calculation for SSc4.2 reasonable?
2. Should I leave the students as transient or as full time?

THANKS

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jun 27 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Cristina, I think your logic is correct on both credits.

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Jessica Garcia
May 14 2013
LEEDuser Member
148 Thumbs Up

FTE for a bank branch

I'm calculating the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for a bank branch, how can I calculate visitors?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. May 14 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Jessica, I would guess that the bank has other branches from which you could easily draw data about how many people come to the teller windows, etc., in a day.

There is no single method for determining FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. data. Usually the best approach is to look for information that the project owner has in some form, or could get.

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CT G Feb 01 2014 LEEDuser Member 20 Thumbs Up

Tristan, I have a similar concern, but regarding calculations for WEp1. We know the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. and visitors counts, but in general, visitors are not allowed to use the restrooms in bank branches. In that case, what visitor count should be used to calculate WEp1? Or can one just use the FTE count?

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Brett Beckemeyer AIA, LEED-AP, BD&C Fox Architects
May 03 2013
LEEDuser Member
203 Thumbs Up

(Jacob) Calculating for Future Growth

If I have a building with a built-in percent of future growth that is predicted to happen over the next 10 years how do I incorporate those people into my FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.? It is an open office and there will be open spaces between workstations that will be purchased once new positions are filled, so they're not included in the original contract. I assume I do not need to count them as they won't be in the building at the time of occupancy?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. May 14 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Brett, you don't mention what rating system you are using, but it sounds like a D&C situation. In that case, LEED certifies a building as designed for occupancy. If the design intentA written document that details the ideas, concepts, and criteria that are determined by the owner to be important to the success of the project. truly includes greater numbers than I would go with those, but if that's too uncertain or complicated, it is reasonable to assume the numbers present for the occupied project.

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Alexia Anastassiadis
Apr 04 2013
Guest
156 Thumbs Up

Calculating peak occupancy

We are working on a project with 4 different shifts. One regular 8 to 5 shift for office and morning afternoon and night shifts for factory workers, there no transients or visitors. At 3 pm morning shft finishes, afternoon shift starts and office workers are in the building. Is it correct that peak occupancy is the sum of all the people that are in the building at that time?

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Jean Marais b.i.g. Bechtold DesignBuilder Expert Apr 05 2013 LEEDuser Member 7173 Thumbs Up

peak occupancy is the sum of all the people that are in the building at ANY ONE time...I usually break my occupancy down per hour...if there are any peaks and troughs within that hour, then this information is not captured. I think that is good enough. At what time interval does your "peak" occur?

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Alexia Anastassiadis Apr 05 2013 Guest 156 Thumbs Up

Thank you, Jean! The maximum peak occurs at 3pm, when the morning shift ends, the afternoon shift starts and the central shift is at work, it happens once a day. How do you document the occupancy then? I´m doing a spreadsheet computing occupancy for each hour of the day. Is this correct?

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Jean Marais b.i.g. Bechtold DesignBuilder Expert Apr 05 2013 LEEDuser Member 7173 Thumbs Up

That's pretty much what I do. As I do energy modeling, I do this per space type and sum the numbers for the facility. You may find usefull some default occupation schedules in ASHRAE 90.1 User's Guide Tables G-E to G-O for some common space types that may be used if there is no other information on the facility (these are load factors to be multiplied against the maximum loads...of occupants for example, i.e. against the max occupant density).

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Anne Harney Senior Associate Ayers Saint Gross Architects + Planners
Apr 03 2013
LEEDuser Member
200 Thumbs Up

FTE for Welcome Center

How would you calculate FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for a welcome center that operates 24 hours a day / 365 days a year? Obviously I include the workers in the fast food restaurants but with this being open 24 hours a day, I don't know if the calculation is accurate. Also, I have no way of knowing the daily average transients - retail customers - except assuming the 536 seats will be filled up each at breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Any suggestions or help would be appreciated. Thanks.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Apr 03 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Anne, how many 8-hour shifts will there be in a 24-hour period? That's your FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. calc.

As for transients, you can make assumptions that are reasonable, although I think the 536-seat example you give is too simplistic. Won't people be in and out, with potentially more occupants for some meals, or fewer for quiet periods? I advise people to look for data from similar facilities. Perhaps the tenants have an idea of how many customers they'll see, or the owner has a projection of foot traffic.

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Anne Harney Senior Associate, Ayers Saint Gross Architects + Planners Apr 03 2013 LEEDuser Member 200 Thumbs Up

Thanks for your prompt response, Tristan. I think I can find out from the owner for average daily transients, as you stated.

As far as 8 hour shifts, If one place normally has 2 employees (I was adding another one on to cover shift changes) so 3 employees for (3) 8 hour shifts (to equal 24 hours) would this actually be 9 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.'s? If I have 2 employees for a place open for (2) 8 hour shifts would that be 6 FTE's?

Thanks so much for your help on this.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Apr 03 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Anne, three 8-hour shifts would translate to 3 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. Two 8-hour shifts would be 2 FTE. I don't see how you are getting your numbers, to be honest!

Also keep in mind that 1 FTE assumes a 40 hour workweek. Factor part-time or overtime workers into your math. The definiition for FTE that you get from the rollover text right here in the forum is pretty helpful.

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Anne Harney Senior Associate, Ayers Saint Gross Architects + Planners Apr 03 2013 LEEDuser Member 200 Thumbs Up

My math was wrong on the last part. Yes, three 8-hour shifts would translate to 3 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. I have Employees A, B, and C working from 8am to 4pm, employees D, E, and F working from 4pm to 12 midnight, and employees G, H, and I working from 12 midnight to 8 am. This equals 9 FTE. For a place only open 16 hours - employees A and B work from 8 am to 4 pm and employees C and D work from 4 pm to 12 midnight equaling a total of 4 FTE.

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Alexia Anastassiadis Apr 05 2013 Guest 156 Thumbs Up

I have the same problem and it is driving me crazy. I have 3 shifts with 30 people working 8 hours each shift. For me, this would count as 90 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. Is this correct?

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Alexia Anastassiadis Apr 05 2013 Guest 156 Thumbs Up

What does it mean when in the PI form 3 says regarding to FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. "Equals the FTE (based on a standard 8-hour occupancy period) during the regularly
occurring moment with the highest volume of full-time and part-time occupants. For projects with multiple shifts, consider shift overlap" Wouldn´t I be considering shift overlap for peak calculations? Isn´t the FTE the sum of all people working 8 hours a day?

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Louise Schlatter Architect SSOE Group
Mar 03 2013
LEEDuser Member
667 Thumbs Up

Reality Check on FTEs

Just trying to make my thinking on FTEs more clear: Does this follow?
A. 1 office person working at an office desk for an 8-hour workday, 5 days/week = 1.0 FTE
B. 1 office person working at an office desk for a 4-hour workday, 5 days/week = 0.5 FTE (and adds 0.5 to peak)
C. 1 office person working at an office desk for a 10-hour workday, 4 days/week = 1.0 FTE
D. 1 janitorial service staff cleaning an office for a 4-hour workday, 5 days/week = 0.5 Average Transients (and adds 1.0 to peak)
E. 1 factory worker working an 8-hour shift 5 days/week = 1.0 FTE
F. 1 factory worker working an 8-hour shift 7 days/week = 1.4 FTE (assuming all others are calculated based on 40 hour weeks, and adds 1.4 to peak)
G. 1 truck driver spends about 1 hour/day, 5 days/week loading a truck and leaving for day = 0.1 FTE (a truck driver does not represent a transient load – no car)
H. 1 vendor (client or sales person) arrives about 3 times/week and stays about 4 hours = 0.3 Average Transients (and adds 1.0 to peak)
I. 4 vendors (a group of visitors) arrive about 3 times/week and stay about 4 hours = 1.2 Average Transients (and adds 4.0 to peak)

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 21 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Louise, the only place I start to lose you is with transients, which are not calculated the same way as FTEs. The definition of transients can be more dependent on which credit you talking about. And a transient, by definition, isn't sticking around, so it doesn't make sense to enumerate tham as fractions against an 8-hour shift. Just whole numbers, in my opinion.

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Erin Norton
Feb 21 2013
Guest
111 Thumbs Up

Calculating Building Occupants for a MURB

I'm second guessing myself and I'm hoping someone can offer some clarity.

I'm trying to calculate the number of Building Occupants for an apartment building. From what I've read in the MURB guideline, Residential Occupancy is calculated using the occupancy densities for the residential dwelling units as follows:
1 bedroom/bachelor = 1 occupant
2 bedrooms = 2 occupants
3 bedrooms = 3 occupants

The FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. definition in the LEEDuser glossary states "Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units."

The confusion for me is around the wording "size of units" ... Does this mean the same thing as the LEED MURB definition I states above (1 bedroom = 1 occupant, etc) or does it mean, for instance, that depending on the size of the room that more than 1 occupant would be counted? As in for a larger one bedroom apartment you would count 2 occupants?

Thanks in advance!

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 21 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

I seem to recall seeing somewhere that there is not a linear relationship between bedrooms and occupants, i.e. there might be 2.5 occupants in a 2-bedroom situation. Which makes sense, if you think about it. So I do think that unit size could be interpreted as influencing this.

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Ben Carstensen Ecoreal LLC
Feb 07 2013
Guest
17 Thumbs Up

Private Vs Public Lavatories

Is there a significant distinction between private vs public lavatories, or is the "Total Daily Uses" calculation sufficient given the correct Uses/Day (FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories., Transient, Retail Cust., Students)?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 21 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Ben, sounds like this is a WEp1 question. Please post it to that forum.

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Adam Targowski Owner ATsec
Feb 04 2013
Guest
1433 Thumbs Up

retail occupancy counts for a shopping mall

I'm calculating occupancy numbers for a shopping mall. Should I include common mall areas (corridors in front of the shops) in calculations for retail areas?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 21 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Adam, I need more information to understand your question. If you are trying to establish overall occupancy counts for the mall, then it seems as though the location of the person (in a shop, or a hallway) doesn't matter.

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Loïc ANGOT ALTO Ingéniérie
Jan 08 2013
LEEDuser Member
337 Thumbs Up

Office occupancy - LEED CS 2009

Dear All,

a question for a core and shell project.

The LEED reference guide Appendix 1 states :
“Core and shell projects that do not have the final occupancy counts must utilize the default occupancy counts provided in this appendix. Projects that know the tenant occupancy must use the actual occupancy counts, as long as the gross square foot per employee is not greater than that in the default occupancy count table”.

Moreover, in the template “PI Form 3 Occupant and usage data”, 3 options are proposed :

“Actual Occupancy: The actual building occupancy for the LEED building
is available.

Default Occupancy: The actual building occupancy for the LEED building
is NOT available. The project team must use the default occupancy counts.

Estimated Occupancy: The actual building occupancy is unknown AND
the default occupancy counts do not address the LEED building type. The
project team will base the occupancy on an alternative methodology.”

Our project is speculative, therefore we do not know the occupancy but there is an “design occupancy” used to size all HVAC components.

Therefore, I consider that the project falls under “the estimated occupancy option”, is that right ?

Thanks,

Best

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Loïc ANGOT ALTO Ingéniérie Feb 12 2013 LEEDuser Member 337 Thumbs Up

Dear all,

Yesterday, GBCI answered :
"Appendix 1 indicates a default occupancy for commercial office space that should be used unless you know that the use of the space will not fall into this category. If that is the case, please include the probable occupancy type and the basis for estimating it's occupancy."

We understand that we therefore must use default occupancy provided in appendix 1 which seems to be not relevant.

If someone can help on this issue...

Best

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Luis Miguel Diazgranados Green Factory Feb 19 2013 LEEDuser Member 1051 Thumbs Up

In your case, I would the Estimated Occupancy Option, and explain the methodology you used to arrive to those occupancy numbers. If your methodology makes sense and is well explained, most probably it will be accepted by the reviewers. Hope it helps

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MURAT DOĞRU GREEN BUILDING EXPERT ECOBUILD
Dec 29 2012
LEEDuser Member
48 Thumbs Up

Airport FTE Calculation

Is there anybody got Airport FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. calculation ? It can be good base for us.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 21 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Murat, sorry for the lack of response here. Every airport is very different.

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Daniel Padgett
Dec 28 2012
Guest
9 Thumbs Up

Occupancy values in ventilation calculations

Hello,
one of our review comments was that the occupancy values we reported in the ventilation calculations were inconsistent with those reported in other credits. I am confused because the occupancy values used in the ventilation calculations were calculated by the mechanical engineer using occupant density listed on ASHRAE 62.1 and these are being compared to occupancy values (FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.) listed in PIF3 and other credits which are calculated by a different method. It seems logical to me that these values would vary slightly. Can someone tell me what I am missing?

Thank you,
Dan

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Jean Marais b.i.g. Bechtold DesignBuilder Expert Mar 19 2013 LEEDuser Member 7173 Thumbs Up

62.1 does not dictate the use of default occupancy numbers. If you have other occupancy numbers for the spaces used in other credits, use them also in the 62.1 calcs to be consistant.

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Katie Harrigan
Nov 20 2012
LEEDuser Member
23 Thumbs Up

FTE for Apartment building

We have a building that has apartments only, do we have to add visitors to our FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. calculation?

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David Posada Sustainability Manager, GBD Architects Nov 21 2012 LEEDuser Expert 16364 Thumbs Up

I don't think its required, but it would be more accurate to assume some visitors to make sure there are publically accessible bike racks.

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Courtney Royal, LEED AP BD+C Sr. Sustainability Consultant, Taitem Engineering Jun 27 2013 LEEDuser Member 706 Thumbs Up

I have the same question, but how many should you guess for a residential building? We have 55 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for residential project, but I am having a hard time deciding how many visitors should be added and then the peak value as well. Is there some guideline or rule of thumb that might help?

Thanks!

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Adam Targowski Owner ATsec
Nov 20 2012
Guest
1433 Thumbs Up

FTE for a cinema and fitness

I am working on a Core&Shell shopping mall project. There are a few different types of spaces that among others include cinema and fitness. What are the default occupancy numbers for these spaces? Can I clasify them as "retail, general" or "retail or servis" (according to table 1 of CS Appendix 1)?

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David Posada Sustainability Manager, GBD Architects Nov 21 2012 LEEDuser Expert 16364 Thumbs Up

You could use other references for calculating typical occupancies such as ASHRAE standard 62.1. Table 6.1 has typical occupant densities for a greater number of space types than appendix 1.

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Adam Targowski Owner, ATsec Nov 29 2012 Guest 1433 Thumbs Up

Thank you David. There are theatres included in ASHRAE so I think it's close enough (for a cinema), the density is 35occupants per every 1000sqf. Do you have any tips on how to divide occupant densities from ASHRAE to get separate values for employees and transients?

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David Posada Sustainability Manager, GBD Architects Dec 03 2012 LEEDuser Expert 16364 Thumbs Up

Adam,
I think it's fine to use your best judgement based on your knowledge of the program or what the owner tells you in their staff counts. Seems like a cinema would be almost all transients, and a fitness center could have more staff. Hopefully the owner or tenant can provide these sorts of numbers.

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Jee Woong Shin CEO EAN Technology Co.,Ltd.
Nov 12 2012
LEEDuser Member
212 Thumbs Up

FTE calculation using CS appendix 1 for NC project

I'm on the hotel NC project and we are under discussion that how to determine FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. number. If there is no certain number of FTE, can we use CS appendix 1 to determine FTE?

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David Posada Sustainability Manager, GBD Architects Nov 21 2012 LEEDuser Expert 16364 Thumbs Up

The FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for hotels will be based on the # of employees, so check with the client for their estimated staff counts. Hotel guests are considered transients, and an occupancy rate of 60% of the rooms with 1.5 people per room is pretty typical. If you search for "hotel fte" in the search box above, you'll see several discussions under the water and site credits that may be helpful, too.

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Tom Hurst Principal Dasher Hurst Architects, PA
Oct 26 2012
Guest
22 Thumbs Up

Calculating FTE

I've reviewed several reference guides and I've just gotten myself more confused regarding calculating FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.'s. I have a Fire Station that operates with three 8-hour shifts with 14 firefighters each. I've found conflicting information as to whether I have
14 FTE occupants -or-
14*3=42 FTE's -or-
14p*3shifts*8hrs*7days/40hrs = 58.5 FTE since it is a 7 day/week operation?
Can you please clarify?

Also, if the only transients are occasional cub scouts or other tour groups of 10+/- children that may happen once or twice a year (for about an hour on-site), are they to be included in the transients even though they are not "regularly occurring" (to use the LEED language on the form). If you calculate this on an average basis, it works out to a tiny fraction of a FTE user.

Lastly, what's the difference on the Plf3 form between "Total Building Users as a daily average" and FTE occupants? They seem like the same definition to me although maybe we don't include Transients in FTE??

Sorry if these are dumb questions but it's gotten me very confused.

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Susan Walter Sr Project Architect, Wilmot/Sanz Nov 01 2012 LEEDuser Expert 12216 Thumbs Up

I think you have 42 FTEs (14*3). There is a place in the MPR forms where you will enter your days of operation as 365 and that should take care of the 'extra' 2 days of operation. The daily average thing is for cases where the building is used differently during different parts of the day or week. Think about how we use school buildings. They have one occupancy during the day, community uses at night and weekends. The daily occupancy gives them a way to 'flatten' out their FTEs. In your case, your 42 FTEs are consistent day to day so your daily average is 42 again. When you are building your WEp1 case, review the uses with the client to understand their usage accurately. Most firefighters I know work 24 hour shifts and you may have a certain percentage of your FTEs that have water use patterns closer to Residents than Office Workers.

For the transient tours, you'll need to ask your client more questions to ascertain their use of the facilities. It does not sound like it is a big use and you may be able to narrate them away.

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Cristian Wolleter KSW Ingenieria S.A.
Oct 09 2012
Guest
33 Thumbs Up

FTE Calculation for Theater

We are calculating FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for a Theater .
We have:
20 Full-time employees
8 Part-time employees that only work in function day
474 viewers ( Transients)
20-30 Actors

We dont know how to calculate.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Oct 09 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Cristian, I'll ask the same question I asked Adriana—is there anything particular about the calculations that has you hung up?

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Adriana Salles Architect CTE
Oct 08 2012
Guest
70 Thumbs Up

Calculating FTE

Hello!
We are pursuing LEED NC 2009. Our project is a Data center office building which will be operated 24 hours, 365 days per year, with No transients, visitors or residents in the building. The shift work is distributed as following:
From Monday to Friday:
8:00am - 3:00pm 25 persons
9:30am - 7:00pm 19 persons
11:00am - 6:00pm 7 persons
3:00pm - 10:00pm 23 persons
10:00pm - 8:00am 14 persons

Saturdays - Sundays and Holidays:
10:00am - 10:00pm 15 persons
10:00pm - 10:00am 15 persons

How do we determine FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. and daily occupancy this in this case? Can someone help me in this calculation?
Thanks a lot!

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Oct 08 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Adriana, is there anything particular about the calculations that's got you hung up?

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Adriana Salles Architect, CTE Oct 09 2012 Guest 70 Thumbs Up

Hi Tristan! I'm confusing about the population considered for PIf 3, and WEp1. Is this the peak population or FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.?
Thanks,

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Oct 09 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Adriana, WEp1 is based on FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories., not peak. I don't remember the details of PIf3, but since that's an information-gathering form, I would guess it may want both.

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Adriana Salles Architect, CTE Oct 09 2012 Guest 70 Thumbs Up

Thank you, Tristan!

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Melissa Merryweather Director Green Consult-Asia
Jul 24 2012
LEEDuser Member
1711 Thumbs Up

annualized daily basis

I do apologize if this is already in a comment stream, but I'm not finding it...We've been asked by the reviewers to update our FTEs and the new Pif3 form requires the "daily average calculated on a yearly basis" for both FTE and transients; this is added to make "total building users as a daily average" after which there is a "Note: Equals the sum of FTE and transients expressed as an annualized daily average". Annualized daily average means that you divide the number by 365. So if you have an average of 1,000 visitors for the 300 days that your building is in operation your daily average is 822 visitors. On the other hand "average per day on a daily basis" implies an "average day" ie 1,000 visitors" which is the figure we would be inclined to input. On the WEp1 and c3 credits you input the number of days of operation so the annualization is performed automatically, so I don't see why this would be necessary to perform in the Pif3 form. Just want to ensure that I'm doing this correctly--I'm not sure how to double-check our understanding; there is no reference to this in the LEED 2009 manual or, it seems, any post on LEEDUser etc. We are clear on all the other inputs. Thanks for your comments!

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Lawrence Lile Chief Engineer, Lile Engineering LLC Jul 24 2012 LEEDuser Member 839 Thumbs Up

I have groused about vague definitions in the LEED FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. and occupancy documentation elsewhere on this page, and this is another case. i would guess that if you have 1000 visitors each of 300 days, then you should still use 1000 as "Total Building Users as a Daily Average", to properly calculate toilet flushes and handwashes later on. I would create a very detailed note to upload along with PIf3, explaining your exact methodology, and define the terms you are using. Also, when you get to WEp1, double check the numbers that come over from PIf3, and change them (with a detailed explanation) if they are screwed up. I keep finding WEp1 double-counts transient occupants.

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Melissa Merryweather Director, Green Consult-Asia Jul 24 2012 LEEDuser Member 1711 Thumbs Up

I think you are right to propose doing it that way. Will be interesting to see if anyone else is certain about this. We actually have a fairly complicated situation because a small dormitory exists that operates for 365 days, so we need to separate that use. But I agree that we should be able to see how the inputs affect the linked submittals. We'll be updating everythin to VO4 format and look at the effects carefully. I'll post anything I see that seems to clarify the issue.

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Lawrence Lile Chief Engineer Lile Engineering LLC
Jul 23 2012
LEEDuser Member
839 Thumbs Up

Discrepancy between PIform3 and WE P1 re: Occupancy

In PI Form 3 (Occupant and Usage Data), it asks for FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. Occupants. This is defined on page 170 of the Reference guide as including retail customers. Yet on WE prereq. 1, Table WEP1-1, Retail customers are *added* to FTEs. This inflates the number of people in the building, since FTEs already include retail customers. WEp1 counts retail customers twice.

Here is the text from the reference guide p. 170:

Calculating Occupancy
Identify the number of building occupants by occupancy type. In buildings with multiple
shifts, use the number of FTEs from all shifts. Include the following
a. Full-time staff
b. Part-time staff
d. Residents
c. Transients (students, visitors, retail customers)

How do we deal with this discrepancy to make occupancy numbers realistic?

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Lawrence Lile Chief Engineer, Lile Engineering LLC Jul 23 2012 LEEDuser Member 839 Thumbs Up

These discrepancies are part of the reason there is so much confusion about calculating FTEs, as you can see from the posts here. The Glossary of the reference guide attempts to define FTEs, but does it in a vague way that doesn't clearly indicate whether retail customers are in or out. WEP1 indicates that retail customers are in the FTE calculation, rather clearly. CS Appendix 1 quite clearly separates "employees" from "Transients", yet does not address what types of people are in what category. CS Appendix 1 seems to assume that retail customers are not part of the FTE calculation, adding more confusion. This reference http://succeedatleed.com/2009/12/make-calculating-ftes-less-confusing/ seems to indicate that the proper way of doing this is to count retail customers only as transients, and only count employees as FTEs.

Meanwhile, on the PIf3 template, we are asked for "peak occupants" which is not defined in the reference guide nor int the template, but unhelpfully has the caveat "does not include residents". One can assume this might mean only employees, but that is not stated explicitly anywhere in the template nor the reference guide. "Peak occupants" is not defined in CS Appendix 1, nor in the explanatory text under WEp1 int he reference guide nor in the glossary. This inconsistent use of terminology, vague and conflicting definitions, and lack of a clear method is one of the reasons we see so many questions about this topic.

"Peak Occupants" on the template includes exactly whom? Only employees?

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Jesus Deras Energy Analyst, The Wall Consulting Group Aug 11 2012 LEEDuser Member 204 Thumbs Up

Lawrence. Have you resolved this issue.

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Kay Sieck LEED-AP O&M Spokane Convention Center & INB Performing Arts Center Spokane Public Facilities District
Jul 07 2012
LEEDuser Member
160 Thumbs Up

FTE's for Convention Center

Has anyone calculated FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.'s for a Convention Center. I have been working on this credit and am still not comfortable with my numbers. I have calculated dark days, move in-move out days, and Event days with staff and guests. This is the way two other teams have calculated this on other projects but it seems distorted to me.

Any suggestions will be appreciated.
Thanks

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John Glennon President Lakeridge Plumbing & Mech., Inc.
Jun 18 2012
Guest
31 Thumbs Up

FTE

I am working on a FedEX building where the delivery staff are in the building for an hour or less in the morning and about the same in the afternoon. How do I calculate these?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jul 01 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

John, you can either count them as transients or visitors, if that seems appropriate, or count them as 1/4 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories..

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Luis Huertas Principal Luis G Huertas, Architect
May 24 2012
Guest
58 Thumbs Up

FTE for disaster recovery site

I am working on a project that includes regular occupants and occupants that will only be there in a disaster situation. 10 of these occupants will be house in the facility 24/7 for 10 days in a disaster situation. How do I account for this temporary "residential" component in the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. calculation?

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Emily Catacchio Sustainability Specialist, Wight and Company Jun 06 2012 Guest 6832 Thumbs Up

Luis,

I would suggest contacting GBCI about this question as I haven't heard of this sittuation before. My inclination would be not to include them at all, but GBCI may think differently. Good luck!

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Luis Huertas Principal, Luis G Huertas, Architect Jun 07 2012 Guest 58 Thumbs Up

Thanks Emily. I did send a message to GBCI, but the team is waiting to move forward and this will affect several credits. I was hopping to get an answer or at least an idea earlier. I can always be conservative, but that will be an extreme case for such a large amount of people (from 14 to 160).

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THREE Consultoria THREE Consultoría Medioambiental
May 23 2012
LEEDuser Member
273 Thumbs Up

FTE's for a Convenience Store

We are currently working in a convenience store certification. This particular convenience store works 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, and has a daily average of 900 transient customers who will remain inside the store for an average of 5 minutes each. There are always 2 full-time staff that change every 8 hours (3 shifts).

We have understood that the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. represents a sample of what happens in the project for a period of 8 hours. Therefore we are considering 2 full-time staff as Full Time Employees. The tricky section comes with the transient (retail customers) calculation, where, the total customers in the peak 8 hour shift are 450, and the peak customers in 1 hour are 7 (this happens because customers stay in average 5 minutes each).

For bicycle FTE calculation, it wouldn’t make sense to consider 2 full-time staff plus 450 customers for 8 hours as this would make us have 23 bicycle racks. These amount of racks would never be used if there is a peak occupancy of 9 (2 full-time staff plus 7 peak customers at any given time). Do you have any advice for calculating the number of bicycle racks given this situation?

This gets more confusing when we analyze credit WEc3, as using either 450 or 7 for transients will result in an unrealistic water usage.
Does anyone know if LEED considers a specific period of time for each retail customer? If so, is there any way we can convert our 5-minute-stay customers into an equivalent number of customers given LEED’s staying time considerations?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jul 01 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Which rating system are you using for the convenience store? I am less familiar with LEED for Retail, but I wonder if reviewing LEED for Retail requirements and implementation recommendations would be helpful in clarifying this—whether or not you're actually using that system.

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THREE Consultoria THREE Consultoría Medioambiental Jul 02 2012 LEEDuser Member 273 Thumbs Up

Hi Tristan,

The project has been registered as a New Construction.
We have developed a "step-by-step" document to show our calculations considering each glossary definition.
Thank you for the advice, we will review the LEED for Retail tool before sending the documentation.

Best regards,
Lu

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Steven Rowland Architect White
May 16 2012
Guest
32 Thumbs Up

FTE Hotel Calculations

Hi folks,

I have a hotel project and we are unsure of our FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. numbers. I'm hoping for a little guidance from the community:

Hotel has 99 rooms, estimated occupancy percentage is 65% year round. Half of the rooms are designed for 2 people max, and the other half are 4 person max. I am assuming 2.5 people per room as an average usage per key, although this number is hocus-pocus and not confirmed by the hotel operator yet.

I calculate 99 x .65 x 2.5 = 161 FTE for an average day. Am I on the right track?
The project is core and shell; however we have enough information to avoid using the chart in Appendix 1. Comparison with the Appendix 1 chart, however, is very confusing. The chart shows 37 FTE. This is so wildly different from 161 FTE that I question both numbers.

Thanks for any help!

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jul 01 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Steven, the Appendix 1 chart refers to "employees" and 'Transients." My hunch is that neither of these refers to residents, and that residents are not conventionally considered in an FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. count. Admittedly, though, I am just going on a hunch here and not double-checking... anyone else have feedback?

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Jean Marais b.i.g. Bechtold DesignBuilder Expert Jul 06 2012 LEEDuser Member 7173 Thumbs Up

If anyone gets real data on hotel occupation, please post it...there are many people that would be very interested. Thanks.

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Lawrence Lile Chief Engineer, Lile Engineering LLC Jul 23 2012 LEEDuser Member 839 Thumbs Up

I am working on a hotel and approaching it like this:
I have 45 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. staff, considering part-timers and full timers on a prorated basis.
I have 114 rooms, management tells me that the rooms have an average occupancy rate of 65% and average 1.2 occupants. I estimate they are on site an average of 10 hours per day. 114*65%*1.2*10/8 = 111 FTE occupants in guest rooms. I am not counting people in guest rooms as *residents*, because they are not washing dishes and cooking, just as occupants. Also I am not counting them as transients, because they are on site for an extended period.
There is also a restaurant, a bar and a conference room. Management has provided an estimate of the number of people expected in the restaurant and bar, as well as the meeting rooms. These numbers feed into the FTE calculation on a prorated basis.
This has not been reviewed yet, so it is just a guess as to how the LEED reviewer will like this approach.

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steven rowland Arkitekt, White Arkitekter Jul 26 2012 Guest 34 Thumbs Up

I think we have some definitive guidance on this now, based upon this addendum.

Of interest to the hotel discussion is this section:
WEp1/WEc3 calcs clarified: USGBC has offered additional guidance on key WEp1/WEc3 calcs, with special relevance to hospitality. "For the purposes of the credit calculations, assume that hotel guests use the fixtures and fittings in their room, employees use back of house and / or common areas, and transient guests use common area restrooms." And: "For hospitality projects, FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. and transient occupants are calculated per the typical methodology for the respective occupancy types. Hotel guests may be determined based on the number and size of units in the project. Generally, assume 1.5 occupants per guest room and multiply the resulting total by 60% (average hotel occupancy per AH&LA information) to determine the total number of hotel guests. Alternatively, occupants may be derived from actual historical occupancy numbers. Fixture use assumptions for hotel guests follow the fixture assumptions for residential occupants. Accordingly, lavatories located in guest rooms are considered to be private lavatories. Additionally, day use guests at the hotel should be included in the value for transient / visitor occupants. Per typical fixture use assumptions, this category of occupants assumes zero shower uses throughout the day. Example: 123-room hotelTotal Hotel Guests = 123*1.5 * 60%Total Hotel Guests = 111."

Check it here: Addendum

11/1/2011 ID# 100001069

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Ashlee Paar Gensler
May 15 2012
Guest
29 Thumbs Up

FTE in a dormitory

we received feedback on a recent project that asks us to "distinguish between occupants and residents". the only occupants ARE residents.

We have indicated the resident count as the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. count (so as not to show 0 FTE) and also clarified that they are residents. This is clearyl not the right way based on the reviewer's request. Does anyone know how to properly indicate the FTE when they are all residents ?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jul 01 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Ashelee, have you resolved this question and if so, can you share how?

I don't think residents are usually included in an FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. count, but I would have to hear more info from you on how you originally provided your FTEs, to understand what the reviewer was reacting to.

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Jean Marais b.i.g. Bechtold DesignBuilder Expert Jul 06 2012 LEEDuser Member 7173 Thumbs Up

The way I read it, LEED says FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. and means FTE STAFF. Residents are treated seperately (see the Water Credits).

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Daniela Castro Salgado LEED AP BD+C / Architect Edmonds International Ltd
Apr 16 2012
Guest
540 Thumbs Up

Determining default occupancy numbers

Would it be correct to use the "Warehouse, storage" gross square feet per occupant in the Reference Guide for mechanical spaces, storage rooms, loading areas and restrooms of a CS building?

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David Posada Sustainability Manager, GBD Architects Apr 18 2012 LEEDuser Expert 16364 Thumbs Up

That would work if the core and shell building is most likely to be used as a warehouse or storage building. If the building has one primary intended use, such as general office, or general retail it might be easier and more accurate to include the mechanical, storage, loading, and restroom areas with the office or retail areas and calculate the number of occupants based on the whole area.

The occupant density of those support areas depends on the kind of building use or program they support, and "gross square feet" per occupant is intended to address the whole building occupanty load including support spaces.

Do you have an idea of the most likely building use or uses? You could also assume a mix of uses, such as 30% general retail and 70% general office. If the building is 10,000 gsf, using the CS Appendix 1 of the Reference Guide you'd get 3000 gsf of retail with 6 employees and 23 transients, and 7000 gsf of office with 28 employees and 0 transients.

(It's odd they assume 0 transients/ visitors for general office; you can always be safe and assume a few transients... or assume that since not everyone is always in the office, it works out in the end.)

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Daniela Castro Salgado LEED AP BD+C / Architect, Edmonds International Ltd Apr 23 2012 Guest 540 Thumbs Up

Thank you for your help David.
The building is mainly General Office (497150 gsf) with some retail in the lower floors (61950 gsf), however I was counting all the mentioned services (99372 gsf) separately.
I believe only storage rooms, reciclables storage and loading areas could count as warehouse right?
Thanks!!

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Joel Cesare
Mar 13 2012
Guest
102 Thumbs Up

FTEs or Residents for Mixed-use residential project?

Our project is 4 floors: first floor with three commercial tenants and top 3 residential. The occupant numbers for the residential is straight-forward based on LEED default values. The tenants are unknown except we know one will be restaurant and two will be retail. We think the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. values for these spaces are straight-forward based on the default values listed in the reference guide appendix using occupants/sqft, including transients.

My question is how this needs to be reported. For the water use prerequisite, it should be split as residents for residential spaces and FTE for the commercial spaces, correct?

How does this need to be reported for the whole building energy simulation model for the EAp2, Minimum Energy Performance?

Do both of these forms simply take the data entered in the Project Information form?

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Emily Catacchio Sustainability Specialist, Wight and Company Apr 10 2012 Guest 6832 Thumbs Up

Yes, both of those forms pull information from the Project Information form. Though occationally you may want to include a special circumstances narrative to deviate from them, this is rare. Anything highlighted in yellow on the latest versions of the Project Information forms gets auto-populated elsewhere.

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Diaa Madkour Architect
Mar 13 2012
Guest
469 Thumbs Up

7 Working days

Hi all,
We are working on a call-center office building. The employees will be working 7 days a week. with 3 shifts a day. We have a confusion with calculating the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. First we have a problem of the multi-shift overlap, how can it be calculated. Second, we have a problem for the employees not spending 40 hours per week as indicated in the definition of the FTE. Shall the 2 working days be considered as overtime occupants?
Awaiting you help.

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Tyra Sorensen Apr 27 2012 LEEDuser Member 414 Thumbs Up

My understanding of this is to get the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.:
(# of staff * hours of shift * number of days)/40 = FTE
if you have shifts of different length, it still works, but how these all combine into the boxes on PI form 3 is bending my brain.

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Diaa Madkour Architect
Feb 27 2012
Guest
469 Thumbs Up

FTE MULTIPLE SHIFTS

We are pursuing LEED NC 2009. We are designing a call centre office building which will be operated 24 hours on three consecutive 8 hours shift work. The total building users in one shift is 3090 persons with No transients, visitors or residents in the building. Please note that consecutive shift would not start until the previous shift finishes.
When we attempt to calculate the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. and Daily occupancy – things get extremely confusing, How do we determine this in this case? Can someone help me in this calculation
Is shift overlap should be considered for calculating the required number of Bike racks, changing rooms and showers, and if yes do we count the entire second shift or just a percentage of it ???? (Remember that no overlap in work time, but maybe second shift employees reach building before earlier shift employees leave,,, suppose they arrive with bikes)
Does anyone have similar experience with such complex occupancy projects.

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Susan Walter Sr Project Architect, Wilmot/Sanz Mar 13 2012 LEEDuser Expert 12216 Thumbs Up

Assuming that for each shift all employees are working 8 hours, then your daily FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. is 3 * 3,090 = 9,270. Total peak shift is the overlap between the two highest shifts. So if the day and afternoon shift have more people in them than the evening shift then use the day and afternoon shift for the peak calculation. Yes, you will have to add more bike racks to the project but you may not have to add more showers (try a narrative explaining people shower after their ride).

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Diaa Madkour Architect Mar 14 2012 Guest 469 Thumbs Up

Susan. thanks for your reply, we still have a problem that we discovered the call center office will be working 7 days a week, how would that affect the calculations? regarding that FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. defined as working hours 40 hours a week.

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Susan Walter Sr Project Architect, Wilmot/Sanz Mar 14 2012 LEEDuser Expert 12216 Thumbs Up

Divide the number of hours in a week by 40 hours to get the number of FTEs. If this is an anticipated figure (if we build it, they will come) then use it but also explain how you arrived at your figures in the preliminary forms.

It helps to create a small spreadsheet.

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Steven Er May 11 2012 Guest 243 Thumbs Up

Hi Susan, i agree with your interpretations on FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. determination based on sum of all shift employees in a multiple shifts case.

LEED BDC reference guide, page 53 states "In buildings with multiple shifts, use only the highest-volume shift in the calculation but consider shift overlap when determining peak building use". LEED online PI Form 3, under complex occupancy states "FTE is FTE during the regularly occurring moment with highest volume of full-time and part-time occupants".

Both of this statement confusing the determination of FTE in a multiple shifts case. What is your interpretation on this?

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Jiri Dobias Oct 25 2012 LEEDuser Member 1050 Thumbs Up

I am not sure if Suzan is correct. According her estimation you would design bicycle racks for 9,720 employees but that is not correct. The peak situation will be when two shifts are changing and therefore you need to design the bicycle racks for 2 x 3,090.
LEED reference guide, page 53 states "buildings with multiple shifts, use only the highest-volume shift in the calculation but consider shift overlap when determining peak building use". From my understanding, you would take only one shift with the highest volume for FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. calculation (but with overlap with second shift).
For water calculation, you will have to consider different estimation though.

What do you think?

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Elke Malleier Dr., Sustainability & Green Building Consultant Mar 06 2013 LEEDuser Member 334 Thumbs Up

For me, this sounds quite reasonable concerning SSc4.2.
In PIf3 the definition for 'Total building users at peak moment' says
"Equals the sum of occupants and transients during the regularly occurring moment with the highest volume of total users."

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Augusto Velazquez aceava
Jan 25 2012
LEEDuser Member
277 Thumbs Up

FTE calculation for conference rooms

My project has five conference rooms that will not be used frequently. How should I go about calculating the amount of visitors for them, and how should peak visitors be estimated in this case?

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David Posada Sustainability Manager, GBD Architects Feb 02 2012 LEEDuser Expert 16364 Thumbs Up

It's up to the project team to decide the most accurate way to determine FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories., program so there's no set rule. Usually the client provides an estimate of the total number of visitors for an office based on their planning or programming. You can make an educated guess and verify with the client if that sounds reasonable based on their needs and experience.

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Lawrence Lile Chief Engineer, Lile Engineering LLC Jul 23 2012 LEEDuser Member 839 Thumbs Up

I have this situation, and relied on the management to give an estimate. They said that the conference room would be rented at 50% of capacity two days a week for 4 hours, so a 200 person conference room would be 200*50%*4*2/40 or 20 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. Peak calculatuions are simply the seating capacity of the room, because eventually there will be a standing-room-only crowd.

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Sanghong Han
Dec 19 2011
Guest
74 Thumbs Up

How to use AGMBC 2005

Hi.
I'm LEED AP but don't have experience for LEED certifications. This is my first time.
I'm working on LEED certification for US army project.
For example, project consists of 4 buildings : two offices bldg & two storage.

I wonder this project can certify a group of new buildings as a package and be rated as a package and only one rating received.

Accroding to LEED NC Application Guide for Multiple Buildings and On Campus Building Projects(AGMBC, 2005), EQ credit require every building must meet credit requirement independently.

Storages are considered FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. is less than 1, so I think they are needed to earn EQ credit. But I think the other credit categories(EA, MR..etc.) can be applied to them.

Is it possible to register project grouping all buildings above? or group only two office building?

This project is applied LEED ver 2.2, not ver.3. US army want LEED ver 2.2, because US army evaluate this with ver 2.2.

I heard about there is no MPR(Minimum Program Requirement) in ver2.2. So I don't know how to grouped these buildings.

Any comments would be appriciated.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Feb 17 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Sanghong, sorry for the delayed reply. Please refer to our AGMBC forum for more information and as another place to post. However, buildings are not awarded LEED certification as a group, unless you are pursuing LEED-ND. The certifications are individual. and the AGMBC gives you guidance on navigating campus issues.

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Gary Mosesman
Sep 20 2011
Guest
75 Thumbs Up

Leed 2009 Standalone Auditorium FTE

We are designing a standalone auditorium addition to an existing high school facility using LEED 2009. We are not disturbing or renovating any of the existing school facility.
The addition includes a lobby space, auditorium, stage, black box theater, and a control room, bathrooms, dressing rooms and storage. The seating capacity of the auditorium is 800 people. As this is a standalone project using the student population does not seem to apply as the facility will be used only for assemblies and afterhours community use.
When we attempt to calculate the FTE, Transients, and Daily occupancy – things get extremely confusing. The FTE for staff is clear because we have owner information, but when it comes to computing the peak and daily average of occupancy for both Visitors and Students, it’s a haze. How do we determine this? Does anyone have similar experience with auditorium additions?

Thanks,
Gary

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Nov 13 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

Gary, I would look to the school for help with this. Do they currently have an auditorium that they can tell you about -- are there classes in it, events, how many people, etc.?

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Veronika Sundberg Environmental Engineer - Certification Skanska Sverige AB
Jun 13 2011
LEEDuser Member
1346 Thumbs Up

FTE/Residence number for CHILDREN at a hospital project

FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories./Residence number for CHILDREN at a hospital project
0Vote up!In the FTE calculation for our Hospital project we do not address the numbers of children that are visiting the hospital.
All inpatients are considered Residential and the all outpatients are calculated as visitors.

Should we consider the number of children visiting the hospital in some way and in some calculations (e.g. water calculations?) ?

Any input would be great,
Thanks /Veronika

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Susan Walter Sr Project Architect, Wilmot/Sanz Jun 13 2011 LEEDuser Expert 12216 Thumbs Up

All visitors should be accounted for, especially in the water calculations, and this would include children. I think the key in complex project occupancies is to break it down further and upload your spreadsheet with your credit documentation. You may find that separate fixture groups for inpatients and outpatients the better way to go. We breakdown each inpatient unit and every outpatient clinic or department in a spreadsheet. Then we can discuss the visitors each area gets with the user group to get the best information regarding visitors. For example, visitors to pediatric units are much higher than for adult med/surg.

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Veronika Sundberg Environmental Engineer - Certification, Skanska Sverige AB Jun 13 2011 LEEDuser Member 1346 Thumbs Up

Thank you, I totally agree.

We have created an excel-spreadsheet, including all information from the Credit template on LEED-online, where we will do our calculations like you wrote. Do you mean we could upload this on LEED-online instead of transferring it in to the Credit template?

/Veronika

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Susan Walter Sr Project Architect, Wilmot/Sanz Jun 13 2011 LEEDuser Expert 12216 Thumbs Up

No, you'll have to transfer your numbers to the credit template but you'll upload this as back up. Usually, the numbers look a little strange to a reviewer and the back up will clear things up for them. Add a short narrative about your general assumptions.

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Veronika Sundberg Environmental Engineer - Certification, Skanska Sverige AB Jun 14 2011 LEEDuser Member 1346 Thumbs Up

ok, thank you!

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David Mirabile LEED AP, BD+C
Jun 06 2011
Guest
852 Thumbs Up

Daily Average Building Occupants for WEc3

How would you calculate your Daily Average Occupancy (for transients)? After showing our calcs for FTEs and Peak users, we received a review comment stating "It is unclear if the daily average building occupants have been included in the calculations for this credit, as the provided calculations describe the peak building users." TECHNICAL ADVICE: "Revise the calculations to include the daily average building occupants."

We have our FTEs nailed down, but per the owner we will have 50 people for 2 meetings per month with each lasting approximately 2 hours each and 25 students for 2 classes per week with each lasting appox. 2 hours. How would you calc each of these? I have asked under the WEc3 credit without any luck.

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Melissa Wrolstad Senior Project Manager, CodeGreen Solutions Jun 08 2011 LEEDuser Member 1679 Thumbs Up

David,

Take the most conservative approach you can with your occupancy count that will not affect credits that depend on occupancy counts such as the bikes + water credits. If I were you, as a first step I would figure out exactly how many more FTEs and transients your credits can "handle". For instance, if your project put in 25 bikes racks and your initial occupancy count was 400 (FTE's + transients) - you could handle 100 more FTE / transients per day (500 FTE / transients * 5% = 25 bike racks.)

Once you've done this for all of the credits that are based on occupancy - pick the most conservative scenario that falls within what your project can "handle". A very conservative method you might want to pursue is to count the 50 visitors as daily transients and count the students as 13 FTEs (4 hours of class per day - converts to 1/2 an FTE each.)

The least conservative approach you would want to take is to count the visitors as 50 visitors * 2 meetings per month / 22 business days per month (or however many days your building will be open per month) = ~5 transients per day. The students you can count as 25 students * 2 classes per week * 2 hours / 5 days of classes per week (or whatever the case might be) / 8 hrs per day = ~3 FTEs.

I hope that is helpful - good luck!

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Nilo Regojo
May 11 2011
LEEDuser Member
189 Thumbs Up

FTE Calculation for Movie Theatres

We are calculating FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for a 2,500 seat, 14 screen movie theater. There will be 20 Full Time Employees but the number of patrons (Peak Transients) will vary greatly. Does the FTE calculation, for purposes of SSc4.3, assume the peak load of 2,500 patrons plus the 20 employees?

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. May 20 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

Nilo, which option are you pursuing for SSc4.3? From what you describe, I doubt that you need to calculate FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for that credit.

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Melissa Wrolstad Senior Project Manager CodeGreen Solutions
Mar 02 2011
LEEDuser Member
1679 Thumbs Up

Age and FTE

We are working on a childcare center. How old does a child have to be to count as an FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.? Many of the children at the center will be infants who cannot ride bikes or use water fixtures.

Thanks-
Melissa

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 11 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

Melissa, for Schools SSc4.2, only children in older than Grade 3 or older are counted for bicycle storage.

For water fixtures, that seems too old to me, but I'm not aware of any specific cut-off that has been established. I think you should evaluate based on your population.

Let us know how you proceed.

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Kyle Wang
Feb 25 2011
Guest
73 Thumbs Up

Airport visitors FTEs

I am trying to calculate the transient visitors FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories., we used the flight schedule to estimate total daily visitors/travelers. When calculate the FTEs, should i base it on hours of operations, and divide it by 16, or divide it by 8 like you would normally with FTE calcs. Please advise!!!

thanks for your help,

Kyle

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 11 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

Kyle, FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. is defined based on an 8-hour shift. If the building is open longer, you have more FTEs, not a different definition of FTE.

Make sense?

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Carly Ruggieri Senior Sustainability Consultant Steven Winter Associates, Inc.
Jan 10 2011
Guest
891 Thumbs Up

Determining visitors in residential condominiums

Has anyone found any guidance or formulas for determining peak and daily average visitors for a residential project? There will be approximately 200 residents in a planned condominium tower pursuing LEED-NC 2009, but I'm uncertain how to best determine the number of daily and peak visitors for this building type. Any suggestions or past experience would be much appreciated!

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jan 20 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

I have heard people talk about parking someone in the lobby of a similar project for a period of time to count people. The difficulty with any formulas is the level of variation you could see, for so many reasons. Picking another project nearby with a similar population may be more reliable.

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Michael Davey Feb 24 2011 Guest 55 Thumbs Up

On the new LEED PI Form 3 for NC It says not to list residents in the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. category. Does that mean that a resident does not have an FTE?

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David Posada Sustainability Manager, GBD Architects Feb 25 2011 LEEDuser Expert 16364 Thumbs Up

There's a place to enter a value for the number of residents below Table PIf3.3 labeled "Total number of residents." It might be on the second page of the form, so it's easy to miss. This value gets carried over to forms such as WEp1 in the column for "Residents."
Does that answer your question?

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Bonnie Chiu Jun 29 2011 Guest 151 Thumbs Up

I have the same question as Michael. I'm working on a dormitory building. On Pl Form 3, do you enter "0" in the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. table and simply enter the number of residents in the "Total number of residents" entry box?

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Susan Holt Dec 20 2012 Guest 11 Thumbs Up

I am also working on a dormitory and would like to know how to calculate the number of transients that should be considered for this project type. I have not found any guidance on how to estimate this. Our occupancy counts for our design submittal included FTEs (Staff) and Residents, but no transients. Our review team commented that we needed to include transients in the occupancy count. Any advice would be appreciated!

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Veronika Sundberg Environmental Engineer - Certification Skanska Sverige AB
Dec 20 2010
LEEDuser Member
1346 Thumbs Up

FTE for LEEDv3 NC applied on a hospital

Hi, we have a hospital project going for LEED v3 NC certification. Most parts of the hospital have rooms for clinical short time visits by patient. However, other parts of the hospital are designed with inpatient rooms for patient that need to stay for some days. Should the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. calculation only be based on the number of staff? The credits that will be affected in our projects are mainly SS and WE credits. Could it be a variation between the different patient groups? Some of the patients calculated as FTE and some as visitors. Thanks in advance

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Susan Walter Sr Project Architect, Wilmot/Sanz Dec 20 2010 LEEDuser Expert 12216 Thumbs Up

Veronika,

For our hospital projects we do not include the inpatients in with the FTEs. Instead, we make use the the 'Other' columns for inpatients. The outpatients are considered visitors and are included there. For inpatients, we calculate the total daily use and not view it from a 8 hour work shift. This means that we account for total staff over 24 hours which can look a little strange at first. I believe that you can calculate the numbers based on an ALOS but we choose not to do that. The projects we have are hitting capacity and have a high ALOS compared to the industry. Since the after construction rate will obviously change, we choose to calculate based on 'worst' case.

Susan
Wilmot/Sanz

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Veronika Sundberg Environmental Engineer - Certification, Skanska Sverige AB Dec 21 2010 LEEDuser Member 1346 Thumbs Up

Thanks a lot for your quick reply, but I do still have some problems regarding register the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. I do not have a ‘Other’ column in the Project Information Form 3 - Occupant and Usage data.
I can only type in my FTE and then in another table, transients/visitors and retail (that I can use for outpatients). But the problem with inpatient is still not solved. Have you done some special registration or how come you have this ‘Other’ column.
Could you also please explain ALOS, that is new for me. Thanks, Veronika

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Susan Walter Sr Project Architect, Wilmot/Sanz Dec 21 2010 LEEDuser Expert 12216 Thumbs Up

Sorry Veronika, I had been working on a v2.2 project and in that form there is an 'other' category. In v3, you have 4 categories to identify occupants. FTEs are staff and is where we normally quantify the regular water use of all staff in the building, Visitors/Students where we account for visitors and outpatients, Retail, and Residents where we account for inpatients. You may choose to separate out your visitors from your outpatients but our clients don't report a big difference between outpatients and visitors so we group them together. The WE form allows you to call out fixture groups and this is where you can break out things like direct care givers handwashing patterns from regular bathroom useage. Or account for unique toileting needs. You could also lump all toilet fixture use together. What ever fits your project. Just be consistent and explain your rationale when you have the ability to do that. The form will make assumptions for you but you can change them. The 'calculate' button revises the percentage saved.

ALOS = Average Length of Stay and it measures how many inpatients a facility has on a daily basis. Your client should be able to give you this data.

Hope this helps.

Susan

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John Albrecht Director of LEED Services Sieben Energy Assoc.
Nov 15 2010
Guest
2003 Thumbs Up

FTE references within CI

For comparison purposes (with CS), I am trying to determine how many CI credits rely on the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. It seems like the credit requirements of SSc3.2 and SSc3.3 are a function of the FTE, and that the WE credits (including SSc1) reference FTE in the template's water efficiency calculation. Beyond that and PiF3, I could not find FTE specifically mentioned in the reference guide, rating system, or templates, and I had the feeling the FTE was more interconnected with cedits than that. What am I missing or is it just too late tonight? Thanks, John

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Nov 15 2010 LEEDuser Moderator

John, I can't think of anything you missed.

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David Posada Sustainability Manager, GBD Architects Nov 15 2010 LEEDuser Expert 16364 Thumbs Up

The only other things I can think of that are related to FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. occupancy are the credits EQc6.1 Controllability of Systems, Lighting, and EQc6.2 Controllability of Systems, Thermal Comfort but these don't appear to pull FTE numbers from the PiF3 form.

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Grace Ming Senior ESD Consultant
Aug 05 2010
LEEDuser Member
745 Thumbs Up

FTE calculation for Hotel occupancy

Hello,
I need some help with defining FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for hotel occupancy.
1) How do we determine the FTE occupancy for hotel?
2) When we assume the hotel guests as the transient occupants, what is the area per transient occupants for the hotel guest to be used. I couldn't find any guideline in Appendix 1 of the LEED 2009 reference guide.
3) when we calculate the minimum number of bicycle racks for this project, we can exclude the transient FTE for hotel guest. There is very little or no chance that the hotel guests will bring along the bicycle.
Appreciate any suggestion. Many thanks in advance!

Grace

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David Posada Sustainability Manager, GBD Architects Aug 08 2010 LEEDuser Expert 16364 Thumbs Up

Grace, for hotels you need to make some assumptions that may come from the business or operations plan:

1) FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. is based on expected number of employees, so your most accurate staff numbers would hopefully come from the client/owner. You may need to compile your own spreadsheet to summarize the different shifts and convert any part-time staff to the Full Time Equivalent. I believe the Reference Guide tells us to use the FTE number for the busiest shift, but we'll want to confirm that.

2) The Appendix 1 is useful for estimating occupancies in Core and Shell buildings or spaces where occupancy can easily be estimated based on industry averages for use by area. Hotels don't really work that way, except possibly the conference or meeting areas. For your hotel, find out from the management if they expect 1 person per room or "key", 1.5 per room/key, or whatever. If the hotel does have conference, meeting, or restaurant areas that serve the public in addition to the reserved guests, presumably the hotel management would have made assumptions of expected occupancy or annual averages for the number of public visitors.

3) I'd agree you can probably exclude bike racks for guests.

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Grace Ming Senior ESD Consultant Aug 20 2010 LEEDuser Member 745 Thumbs Up

Thanks David....

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Amy Calvanese
Apr 19 2010
Guest
48 Thumbs Up

Calculating FTEs

I understand if a transient is coming one hour per day like the example above, but what if they are only coming once a week and working 8 hours? How is that calculated?

And does two part time employees that are in the office three days a week, just count as two people toward the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.?

And what do summer interns count as?

Thanks so much for your help!
Amy

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David Posada Sustainability Manager, GBD Architects Apr 20 2010 LEEDuser Expert 16364 Thumbs Up

FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. numbers are often based on averages and assumptions, but the key as Sherri mentioned is to distinguish between regular occupants such as staff, and transients/ visitors. These two categories are treated differently in two credits: the water use calcs and the bike racks & showers calcs.

For regular occupants, two part-time employees each working three, eight-hour days could converted to FTE thus: 2 x 3 x 8 = 48 occupant hours per week, and then 48 / 40 = 9.6 occupant hours per day, and then 9.6 / 8 = 1.2 FTE. You might average the summer interns over the course of the year, or use the season with the highest FTE as your expected occupancy.

Similarly for transients, use the time of day or season with the peak number of visitors to the building.

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Erik Jertson Designer, International Architects Atelier Aug 03 2010 Guest 125 Thumbs Up

David, 48 / 40 ≠ 9.6 but equals 1.2. I believe you meant to do 48 occupant hours per week / 5 days per week = 9.6 occupant hours per day. Then 9.6 / 8 = 1.2 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. The short cut is to take 48 / 40 as there are 40 hours in the work week (8 x 5).

I have a similar situation on a project that has12 full-time occupants working 12 hours a day 6 days a week. But LEED only considers an 8 hour day so an additional 4 hours per person per day has to be accounted for. My calculation is 12 x 12 x 6 = 864 / 40 = 21.6 FTE. Is this correct?

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David Posada Sustainability Manager, GBD Architects Aug 03 2010 LEEDuser Expert 16364 Thumbs Up

Looks right to me - thanks for checking the math!

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Erik Jertson Designer, International Architects Atelier Aug 03 2010 Guest 125 Thumbs Up

No problem. Its a confusing topic, I still don't know if I have my head wrapped around it.

Does anyone know why the LEED form doesn't let you change the avg. hours / week from 8 to the actual time worked for full-time occupants? Again in my situation with 12 people working 12 hours per day 6 days a week I have to fudge the number of people to arrive at the correct FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. It seems like the form over simplifies the calculation.

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Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Aug 20 2010 LEEDuser Moderator

Hm, not sure why this happens. That's frustrating.

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Sherry Bonelli LEED Project Manager/Consultant BudSprout LLC -- SucceedAtLEED.com
Dec 09 2009
LEEDuser Member
834 Thumbs Up

Calculating FTEs

Hi, Kim,

It looks like you’re on the right track with your FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. calculations. For transient occupants (students, customers, visitors, delivery people, etc.) you would use the number of transients that occupy your building during your peak period.

It’s important that you carefully review the 2009 LEED Reference Guide as you’re completing your submittal templates. The Reference Guide offers you very detailed information on how to correctly use your FTE numbers to complete the template’s calculations.

For more information check out “Make Calculating FTEs Less Confusing” at www.SucceedAtLEED.com.

Good luck with your LEED project!

Sherry Bonelli, LEED Green Associate
LEED Project Manager
www.SucceedAtLEED.com

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Eric Shamp Principal, Ecotype Consulting Feb 27 2011 LEEDuser Expert 755 Thumbs Up

So, if I understand correctly, we have staff that shows up at the beginning of the day, hop into a fleet vehicle and take off all day, return at the end of the day, and go home. It's an unusual case, but I'm not sure it would be correct to use the same FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. values across all credits. It seems appropriate to treat these folks as part-time staff for calculating water reduction, but for the alternative transportation credits, they shouldn't be treated any differently than someone who works their 8 hours in the office. The use patterns for parking, bike storage, and shower rooms should be the same for both full-time on-site and off-site staff members.

Perhaps the project FTE (that you enter into the PI forms) should include on- and off-site staff, counting hours worked whether in or out of the office. Then, in the WEp1 form, establish a separate fixture group for off-site staff that better reflects their actual time spent on site. You'd want to include a narrative clearly explaining your rationale.

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Saliha AIT LEED AP BD+C, OGER INTERNATIONAL May 24 2012 Guest 217 Thumbs Up

Hi everyone,
We are working to certify an airport terminal building outside of US, our concerns is how to calculate FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. and peak building users considering that the operator don't have any information about the regular staff number at this stage.
Are there any figures to facilitate the calculation (per sqm)?
thanks

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David Posada Sustainability Manager, GBD Architects Jul 02 2012 LEEDuser Expert 16364 Thumbs Up

Not sure if you ever got an answer to your question - one place to start is the CS Appendix 1 at the end of the LEED 2009 BD&C Reference Guide. This provides default staff and transient numbers per area for different building types. It doesn't have an "airport" building type but you might use this to cross check your assumptions. In your case the airport planners or specialty consultants may have formulas or rules of thumb for estimating the number of travelers, support staff, employees etc. that would be using the airport at a reasonably full capacity. Is there an existing airport that you can use as a starting point, and ask the designers if those assumptions should be adjusted up or down?

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Tyra Sorensen Jul 02 2012 LEEDuser Member 414 Thumbs Up

Saliha, Check the CIRs for airport specific rulings. The site is being maintained just now, but in about 12 hours should be back up. The rulings will be for the older versions, but are helpful and give you a basis for your methodology/approach.

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Saliha AIT LEED AP BD+C, OGER INTERNATIONAL Jul 06 2012 Guest 217 Thumbs Up

David, Tyra,
Thank you for your help.
We did ask the airport planners to give us some numbers.
I think in a lot of matters, LEED NC is not easy to implement in an airport project even if there is already some of them already certfied.

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Jens Apel Aug 09 2012 LEEDuser Member 711 Thumbs Up

Dear all,
we are currently performing a LEED O&M 2009 assessment for a mixed use building.
We having trouble determining the Full Time Equivalent (FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.) for theatre area.

Doese anybody have experience in this field or default values for calculating the fte for theatres?

Thanks in advance for any comments,

Jens

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Mike Landis Nov 02 2012 Guest 19 Thumbs Up

Thanks!

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