# Calculating FTEs

206 replies [Last post]
Dec 08 2009 Guest
456 Thumbs Up

We are still having trouble accurately calculating the FTEs for our multiple building project.

We have full time staff -working 8 hrs / day in offices on the site. They are listed as FTE Occupant.

We also have full time staff that only come to the site to use lockers and drop off / pick up vehicles and then leave the site. We are calling these staff Transients and estimating they are onsite only 1 hr / day. so if we have 80 staff that aren't really onsite full time we have: 80 x 1 hr per day = 10 transient staff. Is that correct?

How do we calculate visitors for conferences, etc? by the hours they would be onsite or just quantity of visitors and is that factored into the FTE Occupant count?
Thanks for any help anyone has to offer,
Kim

Brandy Burdeniuk Principal EcoAmmo Sustainable Consulting Inc.
Dec 07 2015
LEEDuser Member
3 Thumbs Up

#### Calculating FTEs for Hotel (long-term guests)

The hotel project we are working on includes units that are for long-term guests. In fact, the client is calling these units "apartments". How would you calculate FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. numbers for these units? Would they be classified under the same default occupancy numbers as the Hotel (139 employees/700 Transients - gross floor areaGross floor area (based on ASHRAE definition) is the sum of the floor areas of the spaces within the building, including basements, mezzanine and intermediate‐floored tiers, and penthouses wi th headroom height of 7.5 ft (2.2 meters) or greater. Measurements m ust be taken from the exterior 39 faces of exterior walls OR from the centerline of walls separating buildings, OR (for LEED CI certifying spaces) from the centerline of walls separating spaces. Excludes non‐en closed (or non‐enclosable) roofed‐over areas such as exterior covered walkways, porches, terraces or steps, roof overhangs, and similar features. Excludes air shafts, pipe trenches, and chimneys. Excludes floor area dedicated to the parking and circulation of motor vehicles. ( Note that while excluded features may not be part of the gross floor area, and therefore technically not a part of the LEED project building, they may still be required to be a part of the overall LEED project and subject to MPRs, prerequisites, and credits.) m2 per occupant)? Or are there other default occupancy numbers that can be used for these guests?

Kristina Bach Sustainability Specialist Dec 09 2015 LEEDuser Member 1723 Thumbs Up

Your hotel guests would need to be classified as "residents" not "FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.." "FTE" would apply specifically to the hotel staff working there. This is due to the fact that the water usage of a hotel guest is much more similar to a resident than a staff (such as, guests are expected to shower once/day).

For residential-type projects, we typically follow the posted guidance of calculating the total residential occupants per unit size (assume 1 resident/studio unit; 2 residents/ 1-bdrm unit; 3 residents/2-bdrm unit, etc.). For Hotel projects, we then follow the BD+C v2009 November 2011 Addenda where you assume a 60% occupancy rate for the hotel (per AH+LA). So if your calculation shows that based on unit types your max LEED residential occupancy would be 943 guests, you would actually use 566 residents in your credit calculations and documentation (943 x 60%).

For Staff/FTE - your owner should be able to give you a staffing plan to help you come up with your daily average and peak FTE numbers (these frequently differ for hotel projects given shift overlap/change-over periods).

For Transients - you will need to estimate a peak and daily average value for your transient visitors. These are not staff or guests, but extra people who may come to the hotel (i.e. local folks coming to meetings, restaurant patrons, etc.). There isn't a clear description/methodology for estimating these values. We've found that these can vary greatly based on the size/location of the hotel and the amenities available (large banquet rooms for example may draw more non-hotel guests for peak events). Typically, your Owner should be able to help work with you to develop an estimate of the peak and daily average, non-guest visitors they would anticipate.

Given that hotel projects have so many complex occupancy calculations (the residential calculation and 60% adjustment; the FTE daily average calculation and peak shift overlap calculation, etc.), we will typically submit supplemental calculations showing how we arrived at our occupancy numbers as part of our initial PIf3 submission just for clarity.

Hope that helps!

Erin Holdenried Sustainable Design Manager AECOM
Oct 16 2015
LEEDuser Member
66 Thumbs Up

#### Students K-12

For a K-12 school where each student will be there most of the day. Would the students be counted as FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.?

Charles Nepps Charles Nepps Consulting
Jul 29 2015
LEEDuser Member
863 Thumbs Up

#### Maintenance Staff

I have a highrise office building that will be mixed use office & retail. None of the spaces are yet leased, but the owner does anticipate that the building will need full time maintenance staff and has included shower and restroom facilities, exclusively for their use, on one of the basement levels. Since we don't know the actual occupancy, we are using Appendix 1 Table 1 default values for the types of spaces, to determine FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories..
Does LEED assumed that these default values will take into account building support staff?
How would you handle water calcs for the showers and restrooms, that will be exclusively used by the support staff, without knowing how many support staff there will be? My feeling is for toilets, urinals, and lav faucets, it will be a wash (excuse the pun), since support staff will also have access to all restrooms throughout the building, but how do you address exclusive use showers?

Meghan Ward Architectural Technologist, Sustainable Design Consultant Aurecon South Africa
Jun 25 2015
LEEDuser Member
75 Thumbs Up

#### Historical data for an International Convention Centre

Where could we access historical data on occupancy or attendance data of an international convention centre?
Would anyone be able to provide a some guidance on calculating FTEs and transients for a convention centre.

Judhajit Chakraborty Building Performance Specialist, WSP Built Ecology Jun 26 2015 LEEDuser Member 19 Thumbs Up

Thats a tedious process. I spent may be a week doing that for a similar project type but in the end I found success.

Check if the facilities have that. Check on their past events calendar for a year and compile a data/charts for events day, non-events day and also for "move-in" and "move-out" days before and after the events. You will get a weekly trend of how many days there are events/non events/movein moveouts. Then probably use the occupant densities either from the local building code or from the Fire egress codes which ever is more, and plot it to the weekly trends. You can get to a close estimate from this process.

Furthermore, the facility may have a direction saying at any given time, it cannot support more than xxxxxx occupants (FTE. visitors combined)... so check on that as well. I am sure you can find the FTE count (staff) from the facility. That should be relatively easy.

Also if there were any sort of energy audits or upgrades that were done before, ask for that and check on that report. That should have some occupancy details.

Good luck :)

Meghan Ward Architectural Technologist, Sustainable Design Consultant, Aurecon South Africa Jun 30 2015 LEEDuser Member 75 Thumbs Up

Thank you Judhajt. This definitely helps.. I have a better idea of what to ask for.

Joyce Kelly Consultant Architectural Fusion
Jun 04 2015
LEEDuser Member
166 Thumbs Up

#### Typical Days of Operation for a Combo Research & Classroom bldg.

Typical days of operation for the students, professors & educational staff is 206 and typical days of operation for the researchers and associated staff is 260. The former group occupies 4/5 of the building. To simplify, shall I just add (206 + 260) divide by 2 and call it 233 typical days of operation? Or should I use the largest number of days even though it represents the smallest subset of occupants?

Andrew Carman Sustainability Consultant, Sebesta Jun 04 2015 LEEDuser Member 56 Thumbs Up

I would think go with the larger figure. The idea behind the days of operation number is simply to show how many days the building is being used in general. The level of usage (in terms of people) is shown by Full Time Equivalent (FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.)Occupants number.

David Browne Architect Corley Redfoot Architects, Inc.
Apr 24 2015
LEEDuser Member
31 Thumbs Up

#### Sports Practice Facility FTEs vs Transients

Project Location: United States

I am working on an indoor practice facility for a university Division 1 athletic program and am having a difficult time deciding how to enter FTEs and transients in a project information form. I need at least one FTE to apply for certification. My quandary is that the building has no permanent occupants (a couple of offices were deleted for budget reasons). It will be in constant use throughout the year, primarily by the football and track teams, with some use by the soccer and baseball teams. It is used on both a scheduled and nonscheduled, weather-related basis. Occupant loads will vary between 25 and 150 for team practices, and up to 25 for small group sessions.
Effectively, all of the users are "transients", but I can convert them to FTEs with a little math. My question is: should I convert them all to FTEs and say I have no transients? or should I just convert enough to have the equivalent of one FTE and treat the remainder as transient, with a peak of 150?

Susan Walter Specifications Director, Populous Apr 24 2015 LEEDuser Expert 18786 Thumbs Up

No security guard? You really may have a problem. I would put together a use chart of some sort and call the GBCI.

Andrew Carman Sustainability Consultant, Sebesta Jun 03 2015 LEEDuser Member 56 Thumbs Up

David, you've probably figured this out by now, but just in case you or someone else might have a similar question:

I had a similar issue with a religious building where there were no permanent staff, but there were large groups showing up for worship and other events.

The motivation behind this requirement is, of course, that there are people using LEED Certified buildings and that unused buildings are not achieving LEED Certification. In your case the building is clearly being used, so you should be fine--it's just a matter of showing how you get the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. number you present to GBCI.

The key is that there has to be at least one Full Time *Equivalent* occupant, which is not the same as one full time occupant. So if you have people numbering in the hundreds using the facility, just at odd times, you shouldn't have a problem establishing the usage pattern that is equals the *equivalent* to more than one full time occupant.

What I did to document was check the option for "Actual, historical and/or projected project occupancy includes non-standard occupancy patterns such as shift work, non-8-hour work days, etc." then explained in the box below in the form and also provided a spreadsheet of usage patterns to demonstrate the building usage patterns I got from the building owners.

Even though there were no full time occupants, I still had 30 FTE from the usage patterns of all the part time building occupants.

There is good guidance on this in the pdf file: "Supplemental Guidance to the Minimum Program Requirements" which you can find here:
http://www.usgbc.org/Docs/Archive/General/Docs6473.pdf

Sunanda Swain, LEED AP BD+C, PQP Environment and Sustainability Consultant Global Energy and Environmental Engineering Services Ltd
Sep 25 2014
Guest
18 Thumbs Up

#### Number of transients for FTE calculation

Project Location: United Arab Emirates

Hi, I am working on a LEED for Healthcare project (LEED HC v2009). At the moment I am filling out the scorecards. I am bit confused about calculating number of pick hour transients. Does it mean number of transients (patients, relatives, visitors etc.) present in the hospital building in a particular hour within the pick hour period. Or, it is the number of transients present at a particular point of time within that pick hour period and it is not necessarily that they have to be in the building for at least one hour. Similarly, will the patients staying in the hospitals from 1 to 3 days be considered as transients? I guess the information on transient numbers would be an estimate only and may not be so accurate. Thanks in advance. Regards, Sunanda

Susan Walter Specifications Director, Populous Sep 26 2014 LEEDuser Expert 18786 Thumbs Up

Inpatients are not transients because they are in the building for 24 hours no matter the total length of stay. Normally, I put them in the Resident column and modify the defaults in WEp1 to reflect the 0 kitchen sink usage.

Transients in hospitals are those people who will be in and out within the day that are not staff members. Patient visitors and outpatients are common transients. To determine the peak occupancy, you'll have to discuss this with the client. It could be shift change or it could be some other time.

Come over to the healthcare forum if you have more questions specific to healthcare occupancies.

Nena Elise
Sep 08 2014
LEEDuser Member
4396 Thumbs Up

#### Calculating FTE for a Dorm

Hello, I was wondering if someone can help me with calculating the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for a Dorm. All of the full and part-time employees are residents within the building. The LEED form says that residents are not to be counted for in the Peak occupants and FTE Occupants. This seems pretty straight forward, but classifying everyone as a resident and having 0 for an FTE is definitely not correct. I thought LEED requires a FTE of at least 1 as an MPR. Does anyone have any experience with this type of situation.

Bethany Beckman Mechanical Engineer GMB Architecture + Engineering
Sep 04 2014
LEEDuser Member
81 Thumbs Up

#### FTE-Calculating

I have a Lacrosse Field and New Locker Room that will be used throughout the year for the purpose of just games which seats 1000 spectators, but only on games days. For most of the year, it will be only occupied by one FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. (the coach), but the lockers always have to be accessible to the team players throughout the year. How do I calculate the visitors, peak, average, when it is only on games days and off days with just the team and coaches, janitors, etc...

Susan

MARIA ESTHER LAMADRID LEED AP BD+C, ECOSYNC SA de CV Nov 09 2015 Guest 27 Thumbs Up

I also have the same question how do i calculate the transients in a football stadium if they only go 2 games per month (24 games total). do i do an average? like for example if i have 50,807 transients in seats and suites can i do an average multiplying by 24 and dividing by 365 days= 3,340? thanks in advance

Erin Holdenried Sustainable Design Manager, AECOM Nov 09 2015 LEEDuser Member 66 Thumbs Up

I have not had experience with this specific building type, but have developed a transient scenario for a building with a conference center. I think your approach makes sense. Use an average over the course of a year to calculate the daily transient number. And, your peak transients would be the game-day number.

E H Sustainability Architect
Jul 31 2014
Guest
3820 Thumbs Up

#### hotel with restaurant

Hello. I am trying to figure out how to classify the transient population at a hotel with restaurant on the ground floor. Would the hotel guests be transient-students/visitors, and the restaurant transient-retail customers?

LEEDme STRATEGIE SRL STRATEGIE SRL Aug 04 2014 Guest 225 Thumbs Up

We recently certified a hotel and we considered occupants as follows: hotel staff = FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.; hotel guests = resident (because of their kind of water usage); restaurant guests = transient.

Giorgia - LEEDme

Lisa Sawin
Jul 17 2014
Guest
643 Thumbs Up

#### FTE shifts longer than 8 hrs

We are working on Police Facility. Some of the full time occupants work longer than 8 hours shifts. Therefore should we add the total number of hours worked by full time occupants and divide by 8 to figure out our FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.?

Scott Adams Principal, Sustainable Integration LLC Jul 17 2014 Guest 165 Thumbs Up

Yes, that is correct.

Sriram Gopal TCS
Jul 08 2014
Guest
19 Thumbs Up

#### FTE Calculation

Hi,

I have a slight confusion in calculating FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. to monitor energy consumption.
Example.

Totally 500 people.
200 people are working in two projects general shift of 8 hrs.

The remaining 300 are working in a same project but a 24*7 project.So each 100 works for 8 hrs.

How do I arrive at FTE when I know only the total value as "500" also I have hourwise maximum head count value for a day for the entire facility .

Scott Adams Principal, Sustainable Integration LLC Jul 14 2014 Guest 165 Thumbs Up

You add all the hours each person works during a peak day then divide by 8 so if each person is working an 8 hr shift each day then the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. would be 500. If say 100 of those people were part time and working 4 hour shifts then the FTE would be ((400*8)+(100*4))/8 for an FTE of 450.

Sriram Gopal TCS Jul 17 2014 Guest 19 Thumbs Up

But Sir,

I cited a small example. But the actual scenario is that,
My total building capacity is 25000.
It has 6 big blocks approximately 4000 capacity each.
I have the consumption for the entire 6 buildings added up.
We are trying to find out kWhA kilowatt-hour is a unit of work or energy, measured as 1 kilowatt (1,000 watts) of power expended for 1 hour. One kWh is equivalent to 3,412 Btu./FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories..
What do i use for the FTE.
I have no clue of finding how many people work in each shift because its practically impossible for the administration guys to calculate.

We are assuming to use the unique id count for a day to find kWh/FTE which would give energy consumed by a single person for a day.

Second important doubt.
While we are trying to find kWh/FTE,
is the sum of kWh/FTE for 24 hours will equal to kWh/FTE for a day??
We take the number of people in each hour as FTE in this case.

Are we going in the right direction??

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jul 26 2014 LEEDuser Moderator

Sriram, since this is not a calculation that is required for LEED, but for your own objectives, you have discretion to set up the calculation as you wish. At some point you will have to make some assumptions, and if you want to track this over time, just keep those assumptions consistent.

Karolina Izdebska Ove Arup & Partners Int. Ltd Sp. z o.o. Oddzial w Polsce
Jun 23 2014
LEEDuser Member
129 Thumbs Up

#### FTE - social builidng by factory

Hi, I have a problem with caluclating FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for our NC project. The building is a social - office building consisting of 2 floors - ground floor is a social part for factory workers and second floor is an office part.
On the groud floor - there is a canteen, showers and toilets for factory workers and first floor - we have typical office space. As the water usage in the building will be generated by the factory workers (working 24h/d), that come in into the factory through the discussed building, how to treat them? should they be treated as partial FTE (let's say they spend 2 hours a day in this building - half an hour in changing rooms in the morning, 1 hour for lunch and half an hour in the evening to change clothes) or should they be trated as transints? the bicycle racks will be provided in discussed building as well.... Many thanks.

E H Sustainability Architect Jun 23 2014 Guest 3820 Thumbs Up

For the admin occupancy, I would classify the factory workers as student transients to get your water efficiency calculations.

But, you will have to do a separate occupancy calculation for SSc4.1. Because occupants of multiple buildings are using the showers and bike racks in the admin building, you will have to document this credit similar to a "campus approach". Calculate the FTEs and transients for both the factory and admin building. But, don't double count the factory workers (as both transients and FTEs), the factory workers will be FTEs only for SSc4.1.

Make sure to consider shift overlap when calculating the peak occupancy.

Karolina Izdebska Ove Arup & Partners Int. Ltd Sp. z o.o. Oddzial w Polsce Jun 23 2014 LEEDuser Member 129 Thumbs Up

Many thanks for quick reply. that's very helpful. I didn't realise that we can have different FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. claculations for different credits. Thanks again!

Juan David Pres. CEO JCD ARCHITECT, INC
Feb 11 2014
Guest
299 Thumbs Up

#### BLDG CLASSIFICATION

I'm having trouble classifying our ALF (Assisted Living Facility); is it a NC? or Healthcare? or Hospitality. It's a 3 Story, 80,000 SF, w/140 beds.
My closest choice would be "New Construction" -since it's not an Hotel and Assisted care for seniors wouldn't qualify as patients; would they?-,
Whatever the choice; then do I use NC 2009 or v4?
I'm very confused navigating all over and still no clear "light at the end of the tunnel"

Susan Walter Specifications Director, Populous Feb 12 2014 LEEDuser Expert 18786 Thumbs Up

You may go for healthcare but you do not have to. Here's the current definition of those projects that MUST use HC:

LEED for Healthcare: Hospitals that operate twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week and provide inpatient medical treatment, including acute and long-term care.

Juan David Pres. CEO, JCD ARCHITECT, INC Feb 12 2014 Guest 299 Thumbs Up

Well Susan,
This is the issue, the Assisted Living facility doesn't have patients...wacute and long term care...you see, so, the alternatives are NC and I don't think Hospitality qualifies either...so I guess NC is the only alternative.
If Tristan Roberts can give me his opinion it'll be great; then I register the Bldg.
Thanks a lot Susan!

Eric Carter Intern Architect Method Studio, Inc.
Feb 10 2014
Guest
163 Thumbs Up

#### FTE - partially occupied building

For our current project, the building will not be occupied to full capacity until about 5 years after substantial completion (25% of the project will be shelled. We are wondering whether we should calculate FTE based upon full occupancy, or merely to the extent it will be occupied once the initial phase is complete.

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 07 2014 LEEDuser Moderator

Eric, I would calculate based on full design occupancy.

Todd Bundren Director of Sustainabilty - Architectural Project Manager Lawrence Group
Feb 10 2014
LEEDuser Member
1556 Thumbs Up

#### Multiple Building College dorm project with dining

So I have a multiple building project with 2 resident halls and a dining facility. During the school year (approx. 273 days) has 572 students, 32 full time employees (including dining), 43 part time staff, and 600 visitors (including dining). During the summer (approx. 92 days) they have a sports camp for high school kids and summer students which drives up the potential residents to 2500 (staff remains the same). How would I determine the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. / visitor count? Do I put in the facility is open 365 days a year and just average all the residents / staff based on the summer vs academic year actual days? This is a bit confusing so any assistance would be greatly appreciated.

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 07 2014 LEEDuser Moderator

Todd, it's a bit of an odd situation, but I think an averaged result makes a lot of sense.

Todd Bundren Director of Sustainabilty - Architectural Project Manager, Lawrence Group Mar 07 2014 LEEDuser Member 1556 Thumbs Up

Thanks Tristan, I did the calcs and it seems to make sense. I will see what the reviewer thinks...have a great weekend.

Mike Manzi Boora Architects, Inc
Jan 23 2014
Guest
130 Thumbs Up

#### Informal Space in a University Setting

Does anyone have any experience with having a large informal waiting space outside of classrooms and determining a transient load. There will be users using waiting in this space before and after classes. For permitting purposes we had to take a percentage of the classroom seats and apply it to the informal space. However, the number is quite high and the peak period of maximum occupancy is more or less 15 min at class changes.

E H Sustainability Architect Jan 23 2014 Guest 3820 Thumbs Up

Wouldn't you be double-counting the students if you added a transient load for the waiting area? If you have already accounted for the students, I doesn't seem like there would be an additional load for waiting area.

Mike Manzi Boora Architects, Inc Jan 23 2014 Guest 130 Thumbs Up

I agree. However from the mindset of the permitting agency there could possibly be students using this informal space for study and linger for hours. It's a quite large waiting area with soft seats. I could assume zero, I would hate to run into the same problem as the permitting agent.

Susan Walter Specifications Director, Populous Jan 23 2014 LEEDuser Expert 18786 Thumbs Up

You need to keep in mind that the building occupancy for the fire marshal and others does not equal FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for LEED. Try thinking of the total time a student could be in the building. Talk to your client. It could be something like half the students come to class and leave afterwards so they are in the building for class plus transition time or about 90 minutes. Another quarter show up early or stay late to study and are there for class plus 2 hours for studying, etc. Your mileage will vary but once I learned to see transients from a farther perspective, LEED occupancy calcs got a lot easier. (Says she who loves to live in the weeds of things.)

E H Sustainability Architect Jan 23 2014 Guest 3820 Thumbs Up

That's a good point, Susan. Occupancy calculations for LEED are completely separate from occupancy calculations for Life Safety. The occupancy calcs for LEED focus on how people will actually use the building on a typical day or typical week. One should look at the building as a whole, and not at each individual space. Have a discussion with the owner to understand how many students will actually be in the building on a given day and how long they will be there.

Nicole Kimoto RIM Architects
Jan 06 2014
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751 Thumbs Up

#### Calculating FTE

I have 3 shifts in a 24-hour period. In the first shift, I have a total of 410 occupants during first 2 hours of that shift. After that, the occupant load reduces to 260, reason being is that 150 of the workers in the building actually disburse to all their other actual shops outside of what will be this new facility. Could I count those 150 workers as transient or part-time because they physically are only in the building for 2 hours?

Neetika Parmar Senior Engineer-Sustainable Development
Jan 06 2014
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192 Thumbs Up

#### Hi, we are working on a

Hi, we are working on a residential project. I would like to know how do we calculate the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. and should we consider visitors and peak transients . Is there any guideline that we can follow ??

Gwen Corrie Sustainability Strategist, Gensler Nov 19 2015 LEEDuser Member 6 Thumbs Up

Per LEED ND v2009 (see pg 471 of Reference Guide), the term "Planned Occupancy" states, "The minimum planned occupancy for multiresidential buildings is 1 person for a studio unit, 1.5 persons for a one-bedroom unit, and 1.25 persons per bedroom for a two-bedroom or larger unit."

As for calculating visitors, we found this note someone posted for PIf3 on LEED User: "There's no hard-and-fast rule for estimating visitors. You could survey some building management companies, or you could just make an assumption such as 1 per 10 units."

Nicole Kimoto RIM Architects
Nov 25 2013
Guest
751 Thumbs Up

#### Accurate FTE Calculation

I was looking throughout the forum and realized that everyone would make reference to an "8-hour shift". Would we count the lunch period as part of that 8-hours, and therefore it would actually be either a 9-hour (1 hour lunch) or a 8.5 hour (30-min lunch). Or do we not count lunch as part of the shift? Or maybe it doesn't really matter? I just want to be sure I am indicating correctly on my spread sheet the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. shift hours.

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Nov 25 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Nicole, I think this would be based on employer policy. If the 8-hour shift includes a half-hour lunch, then the 8 hours seems to clearly = 1 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories..

If the shift does not include lunch and an employee is present for 8.5 or 9 hours then arguably the FTE number could be larger, although many people leave their place of work for lunch, and in any case it seems a bit of a fine-grained point.

I would suggest not overthinking it, or using a common sense interpretation in a situation where the distinction is really crucial.

Michael Johnson Architect Chenevert Architects
Nov 20 2013
LEEDuser Member
1344 Thumbs Up

#### calculating fte for dummies

the LEED NC reference manual doesnt actually seem to have directions anywhere on how to arrive at FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. It makes reference to it as if its just innate human knowledge we are born with. The appendix has some info for core and shell, but its insufficient and also im left uncertain if it also applies to everything other than core and shell. the conversations below seem to be focused on specific cases.

How do we begin to go about this? does the owner/design team have to give us the number of employees that work at any given shift? or is it done by sq ft/occupant load? ad what about visitors ("transients")? im really need to start from the very beginning and do not see any fundamental info anywhere on this.

im clearly not aware of some critical document (?).

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Nov 25 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Michael, what specific questions do you have?

FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. is basically a measure of occupancy and a project team should have some idea of occupancy (if they don't, they need to make an edcuated guess). So you are translating your idea of occupancy into terms of FTE. The definition of FTE (scroll over the text above) gives you some information on visitors, for example.

Michael Johnson Architect, Chenevert Architects Jan 29 2014 LEEDuser Member 1344 Thumbs Up

thanks Tristan. I guess the occpancy part isn't so bad. It's an office building open 9-5 with 35 employees.

the part im not as sure about (in this particular case) is that there is a training room. the training room might be used for visitors, and it might be used during 9-5, but also might be used in the evenings. a rough layout of desks in the training room suggest about 15 people could be trained in there. also, its uncertain how often the room will be used (once a week? three times a week? etc).im not sure how to incorporate this into the FTE

Nicole Kimoto RIM Architects
Nov 15 2013
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751 Thumbs Up

#### FTE Calculation for 3 shifts?

I have a building that has 2 floors, each with 3 FT shifts, but with different personnel counts. I came up with an excel sheet, but I'm not sure if my ending calculation of the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for the building as a whole is the correct way? Or if I need to show FTE per floor separately. Here's what I came up with.

Shift 1 - 6:30am-3:00pm
shop (1st floor) ---310 x 8.5 (hrs/day) = 2635 (total hrs/day)
engineering (2nd floor) ---100 x 8.5 (hrs/day) = 850 (total hrs/day)

Shift 2 - 2:30pm-11:00pm
shop (1st floor) ---310 x 8.5 (hrs/day) = 2635 (total hrs/day)
engineering (2nd floor) ---60 x 8.5 (hrs/day) = 510 (total hrs/day)

Shift 3 - 10:30pm-7:00am
shop (1st floor) --50 x 8.5 (hrs/day) = 425 (total hrs/day)
engineering (2nd floor) ---30 x 8.5 (hrs/day) = 255 (total hrs/day)

FTE (M-F) 5 day work week
shift 1 --- 3485 (hrs/day) x 260 (# work days/yr) = 906,100 (total hrs)
shift 2 ---3145 (hrs/day) x 260 (# work days/yr) = 817,700 (total hrs)
shift 3 ---680 (hrs/day) x 260 (# work days/yr) = 176,800 (total hrs)
TOTAL HRS worked/yr----------------------------------= 1,900,600 (total hrs)
1,900,600 / 2080 (hrs of work days/year) = 913.75 = 914 (FTE)

Can someone help and tell me if I did this correct?

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Dec 20 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Nicole, can you specify anything about the calculations you're not sure of? (Rather than having me check through all the figures.)

Nicole Kimoto RIM Architects Dec 24 2013 Guest 751 Thumbs Up

Hi Tristan, I was able to put together a spread sheet, which made it much easier for me to understand. thanks!

A R
Oct 21 2013
Guest
72 Thumbs Up

#### FTE for College Athletic Facility

I am working on calculating the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.'s for a College Athletic Facility that has a minimal FTE but a significant Transient population between faculty and students. I am trying to located a good method on determining the PEAK condition assuming that it would be during an athletic event. Any advice is appreciated.

Thank you.

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Nov 04 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

You know the project conditions better than anyone else—probably because the facility is replacing or updating an existing facility, or you have a peer facility that you know about.

Ian McCall Environmental Engineer Le Sommer Environnement
Oct 07 2013
LEEDuser Member
984 Thumbs Up

#### FTE and Peak Transients for Luxury Commercial Centre

I am working on certifying a High-high end Luxury Commercial Centre. 80-90% of the clientele are rich foreigners and their purchases are very high-end luxury products. Hence most customers will never take a bicycle. Do these foreign luxury customers, need to be included in the secure bike space calculation?
thks,

Susan Walter Specifications Director, Populous Oct 08 2013 LEEDuser Expert 18786 Thumbs Up

The wealth or poverty of the building occupants is not a factor in their occupancy. Yes, they must be included. Keep in mind that not all credit are appropriate for all projects and this particular credit may fall into that for your project.

Milena Petrosian
Sep 29 2013
Guest
71 Thumbs Up

#### Dear All, Im so confused!

Hi Everyone! If someone can help me please! Just opening another store with long hours. (cupcake shop, Polkatots Cupcakes). I have 5 employees. 3 Part-Time and 2 Full-Time. Cant seem to do the math for a 14 hour shift and a 16 hour shift. Can someone please help with "the formula"?? Thank you, i would really appreciate it!!

E H Sustainability Architect Sep 30 2013 Guest 3820 Thumbs Up

When calculating FTEs, basically you want to condense the 24 hr working day to an 8 hour working day. So . . .

3 employees working 14 hr shift -> (3 x 14) / 8 = 5.25 or 6 FTEs
2 employees working 16 hr shift -> (2 x 16) / 8 = 4 FTEs
Total FTEs = 10

E H Sustainability Architect
Sep 05 2013
Guest
3820 Thumbs Up

#### Calculating FTE for projects w/ 24/7 work week & shift overlap

I have been calculating FTEs for projects with shift work based on the 8 hour day and 40 hour work week. So, for example, if a project has three 9-hr shifts per day with 10 people per shift at 7 days a week, the FTE would be:
(10 people X 3 shifts X 9 hours X 7 days) / 40 hours = 47.25 FTE (48 FTE).

However, I have been questioning this becuase that 48 FTE calcuation is carried through to SSc4.2 for the shower calc and the WEp1 for the water usage calc. It seems that using the 40 hour base work week comparison unnecessarily inflates or double-counts workers by condensing 7 days of working to 5 days. For example, in the water usage calculation, you input annual days of operation for each Fixture Group. This will inflate the water usage because one should input 365 days of operation for the Fixture Group(as opposed to 260 for a typical 5 day week).

The SSc4.2 shower calc would seem to be inflated as well, although the weekend workers aren't double-counted like they are in the WEp1 form. I assume the shower calc is suppose to accommodate a typcial work day, but there will never be 48 people working on a typcial day at the facility.

So, I guess my question is, would it be more appropriate for projects with unusual shift work to look at typical 24 hr day, rather than a 40 hour work week? Thus the FTE would be:
(10 people X 3 shifts X 9 hours) / 8 hours = 33.75 FTE (34 FTE).

Any thoughts?

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Nov 04 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

The definition of FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. allows you to divide by 8-hour shifts, rather than 40-hour weeks as is more often done. So I'd say that this calculations is fine.

Elizabeth Felder
Jul 28 2013
Guest
381 Thumbs Up

#### Calculating Accurate FTE Value

The project is a high rise commercial building, going for EBOMEBOM is an acronym for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance, one of the LEED 2009 rating systems. certification. The number we have for FTEs is outdated, as of about a year ago. Management has changed since this number was confirmed and the building has increased in occupancy by about 10%. Does anyone have any ways of going about finding an accurate head count? Thank you!

Louise Schlatter Architect, SSOE Group Jul 30 2013 LEEDuser Member 1050 Thumbs Up

Does the building have some form of security?

After practically standing on my head to convince various heads of security that names were not needed, I have been successful in getting people-hours from various security records for one month, three months, and one year. This works simply if your building is primarily an 8 to 5 operation. It is a little more complicated if your building is a 24/7 or something in between. Ask security if they can refine their data by time periods. This works, but you need a calculatation strategy and you need to explain to the reviewers how you are calculating FTE.

It was just by luck, the three month data came to me broken down by hour. We defined the largest shift and the effective total number of users. The rest is history. :)

Elizabeth Felder Jul 30 2013 Guest 381 Thumbs Up

Hi Lousie -

Yes, the building is a typical office with 8-5 operations. The building does have a security desk and staff, however, building occupants seem to rarely scan their access cards in order to enter the building (past the elevator lobby). Unfortunately, I don't believe security has data or records of all foot traffic and if so, it would be a much smaller number than what is accurate because of this.

The most recent FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. value we have for the building is from a year ago. I'm wondering if there is any way to estimate, based on the amount of additional leased space (say, 60% leased at 1200 occupants, but now 80% leased) or another calculation - since we have stacking plans from both of these eras.

I'm glad to hear the security strategy worked for your team! I wish that were the case for us as well!

Thank you.

Louise Schlatter Architect, SSOE Group Jul 31 2013 LEEDuser Member 1050 Thumbs Up

Elizabeth,

Sorry the security data strategy isn’t going to work for you.

So. On to Plan B.
When faced with a dilemma where the explicit instructions for LEED does not match one’s actual condition, find a logical approach that addresses the intent and explain your approach to the reviewers. If it is critical to your approach to LEED documentation, you may want to make a USGBC/GBCI formal inquiry process.

If the situation really is a straight percentage increase, then a simple calculation using the ratio of the new to the old percentage times the old number of occupants might suit. That would be (80%/60%) x 1200 = 1600 occupants.

If you need a more granular response, a BOMA approach (you can reference ANSI/BOMA Z65.3) may fit best. This approach is also similar to that used in architectural programming.
1. Take the total gross leasable area (GLA), say 400,000 sf, and multiply it by the known leased percentage. This should match and be your gross leased square feet: 400,000 sf GLA x 60% = 240,000 sf gross leased square feet.
2. Divide the number of gross leased square feet by the number of occupants to get average number of GLA per occupant for this building. In this example, 240,000 sf gross leased square feet / 1200 occupants = 200 GLA/occupant.
3. Divide the updated number of gross leased square feet by the average GLA/occupant to get a calculated number of occupants. In this example, use 320,000 sf as the new gross leased square feet: 320,000 sf / 200 GLA/occupant = 1600 occupants.

Our friends at the USGBC/GBCI are generally pretty reasonable. Make sure you are focusing on the intent, clearly explain your approach and why it meets the intent. Vet your strategy using the formal inquiry process, when it seems prudent. And you should be fine.

My question is how are you going to handle transients?

Cristina Algaze Architect. LEED AP BD+C.
Jun 04 2013
LEEDuser Member
150 Thumbs Up

#### FTE for a Kinder-6thGrade school in LEED New Construction v2.2

LEED NC v2.2 is not as specific as LEED for Schools v3 for the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. in schools.

It seems that for different credits, different FTEs may be reasonable in this building type.

First: SSc4.2 > For bicycles racks I chose to follow LEED for Schools v3 calculations where students from kinder to 3rd grade are not expected to use bikes and are excluded from calculations.

Second: WEc2&c3 > For potable waterPotable water meets or exceeds EPA's drinking water quality standards and is approved for human consumption by the state or local authorities having jurisdiction; it may be supplied from wells or municipal water systems. consumption LEED NC v2.2 clearly states students as transients that have less daily uses than FTEs. It seems to me that these students that are from 8:00am to 2:00pm will have the same daily uses than a full time occupant.

Questions.

1. Is my FTE calculation for SSc4.2 reasonable?
2. Should I leave the students as transient or as full time?

THANKS

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jun 27 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Cristina, I think your logic is correct on both credits.

Jessica Garcia
May 14 2013
LEEDuser Member
238 Thumbs Up

#### FTE for a bank branch

I'm calculating the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for a bank branch, how can I calculate visitors?

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. May 14 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Jessica, I would guess that the bank has other branches from which you could easily draw data about how many people come to the teller windows, etc., in a day.

There is no single method for determining FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. data. Usually the best approach is to look for information that the project owner has in some form, or could get.

CT G Feb 01 2014 LEEDuser Member 454 Thumbs Up

Tristan, I have a similar concern, but regarding calculations for WEp1. We know the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. and visitors counts, but in general, visitors are not allowed to use the restrooms in bank branches. In that case, what visitor count should be used to calculate WEp1? Or can one just use the FTE count?

Brett Beckemeyer AIA, LEED-AP, BD&C Fox Architects
May 03 2013
Guest
290 Thumbs Up

#### (Jacob) Calculating for Future Growth

If I have a building with a built-in percent of future growth that is predicted to happen over the next 10 years how do I incorporate those people into my FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.? It is an open office and there will be open spaces between workstations that will be purchased once new positions are filled, so they're not included in the original contract. I assume I do not need to count them as they won't be in the building at the time of occupancy?

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. May 14 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Brett, you don't mention what rating system you are using, but it sounds like a D&C situation. In that case, LEED certifies a building as designed for occupancy. If the design intentA written document that details the ideas, concepts, and criteria that are determined by the owner to be important to the success of the project. truly includes greater numbers than I would go with those, but if that's too uncertain or complicated, it is reasonable to assume the numbers present for the occupied project.

Apr 04 2013
Guest
469 Thumbs Up

#### Calculating peak occupancy

We are working on a project with 4 different shifts. One regular 8 to 5 shift for office and morning afternoon and night shifts for factory workers, there no transients or visitors. At 3 pm morning shft finishes, afternoon shift starts and office workers are in the building. Is it correct that peak occupancy is the sum of all the people that are in the building at that time?

Jean Marais b.i.g. Bechtold DesignBuilder Expert Apr 05 2013 LEEDuser Member 10210 Thumbs Up

peak occupancy is the sum of all the people that are in the building at ANY ONE time...I usually break my occupancy down per hour...if there are any peaks and troughs within that hour, then this information is not captured. I think that is good enough. At what time interval does your "peak" occur?

Alexia Anastassiadis Apr 05 2013 Guest 469 Thumbs Up

Thank you, Jean! The maximum peak occurs at 3pm, when the morning shift ends, the afternoon shift starts and the central shift is at work, it happens once a day. How do you document the occupancy then? I´m doing a spreadsheet computing occupancy for each hour of the day. Is this correct?

Jean Marais b.i.g. Bechtold DesignBuilder Expert Apr 05 2013 LEEDuser Member 10210 Thumbs Up

That's pretty much what I do. As I do energy modeling, I do this per space type and sum the numbers for the facility. You may find usefull some default occupation schedules in ASHRAE 90.1 User's Guide Tables G-E to G-O for some common space types that may be used if there is no other information on the facility (these are load factors to be multiplied against the maximum loads...of occupants for example, i.e. against the max occupant density).

Anne Harney Senior Associate Ayers Saint Gross Architects + Planners
Apr 03 2013
LEEDuser Member
521 Thumbs Up

#### FTE for Welcome Center

How would you calculate FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for a welcome center that operates 24 hours a day / 365 days a year? Obviously I include the workers in the fast food restaurants but with this being open 24 hours a day, I don't know if the calculation is accurate. Also, I have no way of knowing the daily average transients - retail customers - except assuming the 536 seats will be filled up each at breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Any suggestions or help would be appreciated. Thanks.

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Apr 03 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Anne, how many 8-hour shifts will there be in a 24-hour period? That's your FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. calc.

As for transients, you can make assumptions that are reasonable, although I think the 536-seat example you give is too simplistic. Won't people be in and out, with potentially more occupants for some meals, or fewer for quiet periods? I advise people to look for data from similar facilities. Perhaps the tenants have an idea of how many customers they'll see, or the owner has a projection of foot traffic.

Anne Harney Senior Associate, Ayers Saint Gross Architects + Planners Apr 03 2013 LEEDuser Member 521 Thumbs Up

Thanks for your prompt response, Tristan. I think I can find out from the owner for average daily transients, as you stated.

As far as 8 hour shifts, If one place normally has 2 employees (I was adding another one on to cover shift changes) so 3 employees for (3) 8 hour shifts (to equal 24 hours) would this actually be 9 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.'s? If I have 2 employees for a place open for (2) 8 hour shifts would that be 6 FTE's?

Thanks so much for your help on this.

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Apr 03 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Anne, three 8-hour shifts would translate to 3 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. Two 8-hour shifts would be 2 FTE. I don't see how you are getting your numbers, to be honest!

Also keep in mind that 1 FTE assumes a 40 hour workweek. Factor part-time or overtime workers into your math. The definiition for FTE that you get from the rollover text right here in the forum is pretty helpful.

Anne Harney Senior Associate, Ayers Saint Gross Architects + Planners Apr 03 2013 LEEDuser Member 521 Thumbs Up

My math was wrong on the last part. Yes, three 8-hour shifts would translate to 3 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. I have Employees A, B, and C working from 8am to 4pm, employees D, E, and F working from 4pm to 12 midnight, and employees G, H, and I working from 12 midnight to 8 am. This equals 9 FTE. For a place only open 16 hours - employees A and B work from 8 am to 4 pm and employees C and D work from 4 pm to 12 midnight equaling a total of 4 FTE.

Alexia Anastassiadis Apr 05 2013 Guest 469 Thumbs Up

I have the same problem and it is driving me crazy. I have 3 shifts with 30 people working 8 hours each shift. For me, this would count as 90 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. Is this correct?

Alexia Anastassiadis Apr 05 2013 Guest 469 Thumbs Up

What does it mean when in the PI form 3 says regarding to FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. "Equals the FTE (based on a standard 8-hour occupancy period) during the regularly
occurring moment with the highest volume of full-time and part-time occupants. For projects with multiple shifts, consider shift overlap" Wouldn´t I be considering shift overlap for peak calculations? Isn´t the FTE the sum of all people working 8 hours a day?

Enrique Silva LEED Consultat , EA Energía y Arquitectura (Mx) Dec 03 2015 Guest 3 Thumbs Up

Alexia, your peak population is the sum of those two groups of people overlapping a shift. Example if you have three shifts where each one has 20 people working during 8 hours your FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. is equal to 60 and your peak is 40 because overlapping between that two group of people.

Wish it could help. Regards.

Aswin M Conserve Consultants Private Limited Jan 25 2016 LEEDuser Member 16 Thumbs Up

HI SIlva,
As per your earlier comment on FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. & Peak occupants, what is the number of occupants (FTE- 80 or Peak -60) that I should consider for calculating the Water calculation for LEED NC 2009.

Louise Schlatter Architect SSOE Group
Mar 03 2013
LEEDuser Member
1050 Thumbs Up

#### Reality Check on FTEs

Just trying to make my thinking on FTEs more clear: Does this follow?
A. 1 office person working at an office desk for an 8-hour workday, 5 days/week = 1.0 FTE
B. 1 office person working at an office desk for a 4-hour workday, 5 days/week = 0.5 FTE (and adds 0.5 to peak)
C. 1 office person working at an office desk for a 10-hour workday, 4 days/week = 1.0 FTE
D. 1 janitorial service staff cleaning an office for a 4-hour workday, 5 days/week = 0.5 Average Transients (and adds 1.0 to peak)
E. 1 factory worker working an 8-hour shift 5 days/week = 1.0 FTE
F. 1 factory worker working an 8-hour shift 7 days/week = 1.4 FTE (assuming all others are calculated based on 40 hour weeks, and adds 1.4 to peak)
G. 1 truck driver spends about 1 hour/day, 5 days/week loading a truck and leaving for day = 0.1 FTE (a truck driver does not represent a transient load – no car)
H. 1 vendor (client or sales person) arrives about 3 times/week and stays about 4 hours = 0.3 Average Transients (and adds 1.0 to peak)
I. 4 vendors (a group of visitors) arrive about 3 times/week and stay about 4 hours = 1.2 Average Transients (and adds 4.0 to peak)

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 21 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Louise, the only place I start to lose you is with transients, which are not calculated the same way as FTEs. The definition of transients can be more dependent on which credit you talking about. And a transient, by definition, isn't sticking around, so it doesn't make sense to enumerate tham as fractions against an 8-hour shift. Just whole numbers, in my opinion.

Erin Norton
Feb 21 2013
Guest
229 Thumbs Up

#### Calculating Building Occupants for a MURB

I'm second guessing myself and I'm hoping someone can offer some clarity.

I'm trying to calculate the number of Building Occupants for an apartment building. From what I've read in the MURB guideline, Residential Occupancy is calculated using the occupancy densities for the residential dwelling units as follows:
1 bedroom/bachelor = 1 occupant
2 bedrooms = 2 occupants
3 bedrooms = 3 occupants

The FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. definition in the LEEDuser glossary states "Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units."

The confusion for me is around the wording "size of units" ... Does this mean the same thing as the LEED MURB definition I states above (1 bedroom = 1 occupant, etc) or does it mean, for instance, that depending on the size of the room that more than 1 occupant would be counted? As in for a larger one bedroom apartment you would count 2 occupants?

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 21 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

I seem to recall seeing somewhere that there is not a linear relationship between bedrooms and occupants, i.e. there might be 2.5 occupants in a 2-bedroom situation. Which makes sense, if you think about it. So I do think that unit size could be interpreted as influencing this.

Ben Carstensen Ecoreal LLC
Feb 07 2013
Guest
85 Thumbs Up

#### Private Vs Public Lavatories

Is there a significant distinction between private vs public lavatories, or is the "Total Daily Uses" calculation sufficient given the correct Uses/Day (FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories., Transient, Retail Cust., Students)?

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 21 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Ben, sounds like this is a WEp1 question. Please post it to that forum.

Feb 04 2013
Guest
2110 Thumbs Up

#### retail occupancy counts for a shopping mall

I'm calculating occupancy numbers for a shopping mall. Should I include common mall areas (corridors in front of the shops) in calculations for retail areas?

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 21 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Adam, I need more information to understand your question. If you are trying to establish overall occupancy counts for the mall, then it seems as though the location of the person (in a shop, or a hallway) doesn't matter.

Elodie DUMAS ALTO Ingénierie
Jan 08 2013
LEEDuser Member
762 Thumbs Up

#### Office occupancy - LEED CS 2009

Dear All,

a question for a core and shell project.

The LEED reference guide Appendix 1 states :
“Core and shell projects that do not have the final occupancy counts must utilize the default occupancy counts provided in this appendix. Projects that know the tenant occupancy must use the actual occupancy counts, as long as the gross square foot per employee is not greater than that in the default occupancy count table”.

Moreover, in the template “PI Form 3 Occupant and usage data”, 3 options are proposed :

“Actual Occupancy: The actual building occupancy for the LEED building
is available.

Default Occupancy: The actual building occupancy for the LEED building
is NOT available. The project team must use the default occupancy counts.

Estimated Occupancy: The actual building occupancy is unknown AND
the default occupancy counts do not address the LEED building type. The
project team will base the occupancy on an alternative methodology.”

Our project is speculative, therefore we do not know the occupancy but there is an “design occupancy” used to size all HVAC components.

Therefore, I consider that the project falls under “the estimated occupancy option”, is that right ?

Thanks,

Best

Elodie DUMAS ALTO Ingénierie Feb 12 2013 LEEDuser Member 762 Thumbs Up

Dear all,

"Appendix 1 indicates a default occupancy for commercial office space that should be used unless you know that the use of the space will not fall into this category. If that is the case, please include the probable occupancy type and the basis for estimating it's occupancy."

We understand that we therefore must use default occupancy provided in appendix 1 which seems to be not relevant.

If someone can help on this issue...

Best

Luis Miguel Diazgranados Green Factory Feb 19 2013 LEEDuser Member 1376 Thumbs Up

In your case, I would the Estimated Occupancy Option, and explain the methodology you used to arrive to those occupancy numbers. If your methodology makes sense and is well explained, most probably it will be accepted by the reviewers. Hope it helps

MURAT DOĞRU GREEN BUILDING EXPERT ECOBUILD
Dec 29 2012
LEEDuser Member
134 Thumbs Up

#### Airport FTE Calculation

Is there anybody got Airport FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. calculation ? It can be good base for us.

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 21 2013 LEEDuser Moderator

Murat, sorry for the lack of response here. Every airport is very different.

Dec 28 2012
Guest
78 Thumbs Up

#### Occupancy values in ventilation calculations

Hello,
one of our review comments was that the occupancy values we reported in the ventilation calculations were inconsistent with those reported in other credits. I am confused because the occupancy values used in the ventilation calculations were calculated by the mechanical engineer using occupant density listed on ASHRAE 62.1 and these are being compared to occupancy values (FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.) listed in PIF3 and other credits which are calculated by a different method. It seems logical to me that these values would vary slightly. Can someone tell me what I am missing?

Thank you,
Dan

Jean Marais b.i.g. Bechtold DesignBuilder Expert Mar 19 2013 LEEDuser Member 10210 Thumbs Up

62.1 does not dictate the use of default occupancy numbers. If you have other occupancy numbers for the spaces used in other credits, use them also in the 62.1 calcs to be consistant.

Katie Harrigan
Nov 20 2012
Guest
154 Thumbs Up

#### FTE for Apartment building

We have a building that has apartments only, do we have to add visitors to our FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. calculation?

David Posada Sustainability Manager, SS TAG member, GBD Architects Nov 21 2012 Guest 19734 Thumbs Up

I don't think its required, but it would be more accurate to assume some visitors to make sure there are publically accessible bike racks.

Courtney Royal, LEED AP BD+C Sr. Sustainability Consultant, Taitem Engineering Jun 27 2013 LEEDuser Member 1541 Thumbs Up

I have the same question, but how many should you guess for a residential building? We have 55 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for residential project, but I am having a hard time deciding how many visitors should be added and then the peak value as well. Is there some guideline or rule of thumb that might help?

Thanks!

CT G Jan 20 2015 LEEDuser Member 454 Thumbs Up

Courtney, how did you go around calculating the visitors for your residential project? Thanks!

Nov 20 2012
Guest
2110 Thumbs Up

#### FTE for a cinema and fitness

I am working on a Core&Shell shopping mall project. There are a few different types of spaces that among others include cinema and fitness. What are the default occupancy numbers for these spaces? Can I clasify them as "retail, general" or "retail or servis" (according to table 1 of CS Appendix 1)?

David Posada Sustainability Manager, SS TAG member, GBD Architects Nov 21 2012 Guest 19734 Thumbs Up

You could use other references for calculating typical occupancies such as ASHRAE standard 62.1. Table 6.1 has typical occupant densities for a greater number of space types than appendix 1.

Adam Targowski Owner, ATsec Nov 29 2012 Guest 2110 Thumbs Up

Thank you David. There are theatres included in ASHRAE so I think it's close enough (for a cinema), the density is 35occupants per every 1000sqf. Do you have any tips on how to divide occupant densities from ASHRAE to get separate values for employees and transients?

David Posada Sustainability Manager, SS TAG member, GBD Architects Dec 03 2012 Guest 19734 Thumbs Up

I think it's fine to use your best judgement based on your knowledge of the program or what the owner tells you in their staff counts. Seems like a cinema would be almost all transients, and a fitness center could have more staff. Hopefully the owner or tenant can provide these sorts of numbers.

sjw@eantec.co.kr Shin CEO EAN Technology Co.,Ltd.
Nov 12 2012
LEEDuser Member
284 Thumbs Up

#### FTE calculation using CS appendix 1 for NC project

I'm on the hotel NC project and we are under discussion that how to determine FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. number. If there is no certain number of FTE, can we use CS appendix 1 to determine FTE?

David Posada Sustainability Manager, SS TAG member, GBD Architects Nov 21 2012 Guest 19734 Thumbs Up

The FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for hotels will be based on the # of employees, so check with the client for their estimated staff counts. Hotel guests are considered transients, and an occupancy rate of 60% of the rooms with 1.5 people per room is pretty typical. If you search for "hotel fte" in the search box above, you'll see several discussions under the water and site credits that may be helpful, too.

Tom Hurst Principal Dasher Hurst Architects, PA
Oct 26 2012
Guest
88 Thumbs Up

#### Calculating FTE

I've reviewed several reference guides and I've just gotten myself more confused regarding calculating FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.'s. I have a Fire Station that operates with three 8-hour shifts with 14 firefighters each. I've found conflicting information as to whether I have
14 FTE occupants -or-
14*3=42 FTE's -or-
14p*3shifts*8hrs*7days/40hrs = 58.5 FTE since it is a 7 day/week operation?

Also, if the only transients are occasional cub scouts or other tour groups of 10+/- children that may happen once or twice a year (for about an hour on-site), are they to be included in the transients even though they are not "regularly occurring" (to use the LEED language on the form). If you calculate this on an average basis, it works out to a tiny fraction of a FTE user.

Lastly, what's the difference on the Plf3 form between "Total Building Users as a daily average" and FTE occupants? They seem like the same definition to me although maybe we don't include Transients in FTE??

Sorry if these are dumb questions but it's gotten me very confused.

Susan Walter Specifications Director, Populous Nov 01 2012 LEEDuser Expert 18786 Thumbs Up

I think you have 42 FTEs (14*3). There is a place in the MPR forms where you will enter your days of operation as 365 and that should take care of the 'extra' 2 days of operation. The daily average thing is for cases where the building is used differently during different parts of the day or week. Think about how we use school buildings. They have one occupancy during the day, community uses at night and weekends. The daily occupancy gives them a way to 'flatten' out their FTEs. In your case, your 42 FTEs are consistent day to day so your daily average is 42 again. When you are building your WEp1 case, review the uses with the client to understand their usage accurately. Most firefighters I know work 24 hour shifts and you may have a certain percentage of your FTEs that have water use patterns closer to Residents than Office Workers.

For the transient tours, you'll need to ask your client more questions to ascertain their use of the facilities. It does not sound like it is a big use and you may be able to narrate them away.

Cristian Wolleter KSW Ingenieria S.A.
Oct 09 2012
Guest
90 Thumbs Up

#### FTE Calculation for Theater

We are calculating FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for a Theater .
We have:
20 Full-time employees
8 Part-time employees that only work in function day
474 viewers ( Transients)
20-30 Actors

We dont know how to calculate.

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Oct 09 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Oct 08 2012
Guest
262 Thumbs Up

#### Calculating FTE

Hello!
We are pursuing LEED NC 2009. Our project is a Data center office building which will be operated 24 hours, 365 days per year, with No transients, visitors or residents in the building. The shift work is distributed as following:
From Monday to Friday:
8:00am - 3:00pm 25 persons
9:30am - 7:00pm 19 persons
11:00am - 6:00pm 7 persons
3:00pm - 10:00pm 23 persons
10:00pm - 8:00am 14 persons

Saturdays - Sundays and Holidays:
10:00am - 10:00pm 15 persons
10:00pm - 10:00am 15 persons

How do we determine FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. and daily occupancy this in this case? Can someone help me in this calculation?
Thanks a lot!

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Oct 08 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Adriana, is there anything particular about the calculations that's got you hung up?

Adriana Salles Architect, CTE Oct 09 2012 Guest 262 Thumbs Up

Hi Tristan! I'm confusing about the population considered for PIf 3, and WEp1. Is this the peak population or FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.?
Thanks,

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Oct 09 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Adriana, WEp1 is based on FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories., not peak. I don't remember the details of PIf3, but since that's an information-gathering form, I would guess it may want both.

Adriana Salles Architect, CTE Oct 09 2012 Guest 262 Thumbs Up

Thank you, Tristan!

Melissa Merryweather Director Green Consult-Asia
Jul 24 2012
LEEDuser Member
2728 Thumbs Up

#### annualized daily basis

I do apologize if this is already in a comment stream, but I'm not finding it...We've been asked by the reviewers to update our FTEs and the new Pif3 form requires the "daily average calculated on a yearly basis" for both FTE and transients; this is added to make "total building users as a daily average" after which there is a "Note: Equals the sum of FTE and transients expressed as an annualized daily average". Annualized daily average means that you divide the number by 365. So if you have an average of 1,000 visitors for the 300 days that your building is in operation your daily average is 822 visitors. On the other hand "average per day on a daily basis" implies an "average day" ie 1,000 visitors" which is the figure we would be inclined to input. On the WEp1 and c3 credits you input the number of days of operation so the annualization is performed automatically, so I don't see why this would be necessary to perform in the Pif3 form. Just want to ensure that I'm doing this correctly--I'm not sure how to double-check our understanding; there is no reference to this in the LEED 2009 manual or, it seems, any post on LEEDUser etc. We are clear on all the other inputs. Thanks for your comments!

Lawrence Lile Chief Engineer, Lile Engineering LLC Jul 24 2012 LEEDuser Member 2410 Thumbs Up

I have groused about vague definitions in the LEED FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. and occupancy documentation elsewhere on this page, and this is another case. i would guess that if you have 1000 visitors each of 300 days, then you should still use 1000 as "Total Building Users as a Daily Average", to properly calculate toilet flushes and handwashes later on. I would create a very detailed note to upload along with PIf3, explaining your exact methodology, and define the terms you are using. Also, when you get to WEp1, double check the numbers that come over from PIf3, and change them (with a detailed explanation) if they are screwed up. I keep finding WEp1 double-counts transient occupants.

Melissa Merryweather Director, Green Consult-Asia Jul 24 2012 LEEDuser Member 2728 Thumbs Up

I think you are right to propose doing it that way. Will be interesting to see if anyone else is certain about this. We actually have a fairly complicated situation because a small dormitory exists that operates for 365 days, so we need to separate that use. But I agree that we should be able to see how the inputs affect the linked submittals. We'll be updating everythin to VO4 format and look at the effects carefully. I'll post anything I see that seems to clarify the issue.

Lawrence Lile Chief Engineer Lile Engineering LLC
Jul 23 2012
LEEDuser Member
2410 Thumbs Up

#### Discrepancy between PIform3 and WE P1 re: Occupancy

In PI Form 3 (Occupant and Usage Data), it asks for FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. Occupants. This is defined on page 170 of the Reference guide as including retail customers. Yet on WE prereq. 1, Table WEP1-1, Retail customers are *added* to FTEs. This inflates the number of people in the building, since FTEs already include retail customers. WEp1 counts retail customers twice.

Here is the text from the reference guide p. 170:

Calculating Occupancy
Identify the number of building occupants by occupancy type. In buildings with multiple
shifts, use the number of FTEs from all shifts. Include the following
a. Full-time staff
b. Part-time staff
d. Residents
c. Transients (students, visitors, retail customers)

How do we deal with this discrepancy to make occupancy numbers realistic?

Lawrence Lile Chief Engineer, Lile Engineering LLC Jul 23 2012 LEEDuser Member 2410 Thumbs Up

These discrepancies are part of the reason there is so much confusion about calculating FTEs, as you can see from the posts here. The Glossary of the reference guide attempts to define FTEs, but does it in a vague way that doesn't clearly indicate whether retail customers are in or out. WEP1 indicates that retail customers are in the FTE calculation, rather clearly. CS Appendix 1 quite clearly separates "employees" from "Transients", yet does not address what types of people are in what category. CS Appendix 1 seems to assume that retail customers are not part of the FTE calculation, adding more confusion. This reference http://succeedatleed.com/2009/12/make-calculating-ftes-less-confusing/ seems to indicate that the proper way of doing this is to count retail customers only as transients, and only count employees as FTEs.

Meanwhile, on the PIf3 template, we are asked for "peak occupants" which is not defined in the reference guide nor int the template, but unhelpfully has the caveat "does not include residents". One can assume this might mean only employees, but that is not stated explicitly anywhere in the template nor the reference guide. "Peak occupants" is not defined in CS Appendix 1, nor in the explanatory text under WEp1 int he reference guide nor in the glossary. This inconsistent use of terminology, vague and conflicting definitions, and lack of a clear method is one of the reasons we see so many questions about this topic.

"Peak Occupants" on the template includes exactly whom? Only employees?

Jesus Deras Energy Analyst, The Wall Consulting Group Aug 11 2012 LEEDuser Member 353 Thumbs Up

Lawrence. Have you resolved this issue.

Kay Sieck LEED-AP O&M Spokane Convention Center & INB Performing Arts Center Spokane Public Facilities District
Jul 07 2012
LEEDuser Member
366 Thumbs Up

#### FTE's for Convention Center

Has anyone calculated FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.'s for a Convention Center. I have been working on this credit and am still not comfortable with my numbers. I have calculated dark days, move in-move out days, and Event days with staff and guests. This is the way two other teams have calculated this on other projects but it seems distorted to me.

Any suggestions will be appreciated.
Thanks

John Glennon President Lakeridge Plumbing & Mech., Inc.
Jun 18 2012
Guest
83 Thumbs Up

#### FTE

I am working on a FedEX building where the delivery staff are in the building for an hour or less in the morning and about the same in the afternoon. How do I calculate these?

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jul 01 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

John, you can either count them as transients or visitors, if that seems appropriate, or count them as 1/4 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories..

Luis Huertas Principal Luis G Huertas, Architect
May 24 2012
Guest
180 Thumbs Up

#### FTE for disaster recovery site

I am working on a project that includes regular occupants and occupants that will only be there in a disaster situation. 10 of these occupants will be house in the facility 24/7 for 10 days in a disaster situation. How do I account for this temporary "residential" component in the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. calculation?

Emily Catacchio Sustainability Specialist, Wight and Company Jun 06 2012 Guest 8930 Thumbs Up

Luis,

I would suggest contacting GBCI about this question as I haven't heard of this sittuation before. My inclination would be not to include them at all, but GBCI may think differently. Good luck!

Luis Huertas Principal, Luis G Huertas, Architect Jun 07 2012 Guest 180 Thumbs Up

Thanks Emily. I did send a message to GBCI, but the team is waiting to move forward and this will affect several credits. I was hopping to get an answer or at least an idea earlier. I can always be conservative, but that will be an extreme case for such a large amount of people (from 14 to 160).

Lourdes Salinas THREE Consultoría Medioambiental
May 23 2012
Guest
443 Thumbs Up

#### FTE's for a Convenience Store

We are currently working in a convenience store certification. This particular convenience store works 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, and has a daily average of 900 transient customers who will remain inside the store for an average of 5 minutes each. There are always 2 full-time staff that change every 8 hours (3 shifts).

We have understood that the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. represents a sample of what happens in the project for a period of 8 hours. Therefore we are considering 2 full-time staff as Full Time Employees. The tricky section comes with the transient (retail customers) calculation, where, the total customers in the peak 8 hour shift are 450, and the peak customers in 1 hour are 7 (this happens because customers stay in average 5 minutes each).

For bicycle FTE calculation, it wouldn’t make sense to consider 2 full-time staff plus 450 customers for 8 hours as this would make us have 23 bicycle racks. These amount of racks would never be used if there is a peak occupancy of 9 (2 full-time staff plus 7 peak customers at any given time). Do you have any advice for calculating the number of bicycle racks given this situation?

This gets more confusing when we analyze credit WEc3, as using either 450 or 7 for transients will result in an unrealistic water usage.
Does anyone know if LEED considers a specific period of time for each retail customer? If so, is there any way we can convert our 5-minute-stay customers into an equivalent number of customers given LEED’s staying time considerations?

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jul 01 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Which rating system are you using for the convenience store? I am less familiar with LEED for Retail, but I wonder if reviewing LEED for Retail requirements and implementation recommendations would be helpful in clarifying this—whether or not you're actually using that system.

Lourdes Salinas THREE Consultoría Medioambiental Jul 02 2012 Guest 443 Thumbs Up

Hi Tristan,

The project has been registered as a New Construction.
We have developed a "step-by-step" document to show our calculations considering each glossary definition.
Thank you for the advice, we will review the LEED for Retail tool before sending the documentation.

Best regards,
Lu

Steven Rowland Architect White
May 16 2012
Guest
55 Thumbs Up

#### FTE Hotel Calculations

Hi folks,

I have a hotel project and we are unsure of our FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. numbers. I'm hoping for a little guidance from the community:

Hotel has 99 rooms, estimated occupancy percentage is 65% year round. Half of the rooms are designed for 2 people max, and the other half are 4 person max. I am assuming 2.5 people per room as an average usage per key, although this number is hocus-pocus and not confirmed by the hotel operator yet.

I calculate 99 x .65 x 2.5 = 161 FTE for an average day. Am I on the right track?
The project is core and shell; however we have enough information to avoid using the chart in Appendix 1. Comparison with the Appendix 1 chart, however, is very confusing. The chart shows 37 FTE. This is so wildly different from 161 FTE that I question both numbers.

Thanks for any help!

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jul 01 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Steven, the Appendix 1 chart refers to "employees" and 'Transients." My hunch is that neither of these refers to residents, and that residents are not conventionally considered in an FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. count. Admittedly, though, I am just going on a hunch here and not double-checking... anyone else have feedback?

Jean Marais b.i.g. Bechtold DesignBuilder Expert Jul 06 2012 LEEDuser Member 10210 Thumbs Up

If anyone gets real data on hotel occupation, please post it...there are many people that would be very interested. Thanks.

Lawrence Lile Chief Engineer, Lile Engineering LLC Jul 23 2012 LEEDuser Member 2410 Thumbs Up

I am working on a hotel and approaching it like this:
I have 45 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. staff, considering part-timers and full timers on a prorated basis.
I have 114 rooms, management tells me that the rooms have an average occupancy rate of 65% and average 1.2 occupants. I estimate they are on site an average of 10 hours per day. 114*65%*1.2*10/8 = 111 FTE occupants in guest rooms. I am not counting people in guest rooms as *residents*, because they are not washing dishes and cooking, just as occupants. Also I am not counting them as transients, because they are on site for an extended period.
There is also a restaurant, a bar and a conference room. Management has provided an estimate of the number of people expected in the restaurant and bar, as well as the meeting rooms. These numbers feed into the FTE calculation on a prorated basis.
This has not been reviewed yet, so it is just a guess as to how the LEED reviewer will like this approach.

steven rowland Arkitekt, White Arkitekter Jul 26 2012 Guest 71 Thumbs Up

I think we have some definitive guidance on this now, based upon this addendum.

Of interest to the hotel discussion is this section:
WEp1/WEc3 calcs clarified: USGBC has offered additional guidance on key WEp1/WEc3 calcs, with special relevance to hospitality. "For the purposes of the credit calculations, assume that hotel guests use the fixtures and fittings in their room, employees use back of house and / or common areas, and transient guests use common area restrooms." And: "For hospitality projects, FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. and transient occupants are calculated per the typical methodology for the respective occupancy types. Hotel guests may be determined based on the number and size of units in the project. Generally, assume 1.5 occupants per guest room and multiply the resulting total by 60% (average hotel occupancy per AH&LA information) to determine the total number of hotel guests. Alternatively, occupants may be derived from actual historical occupancy numbers. Fixture use assumptions for hotel guests follow the fixture assumptions for residential occupants. Accordingly, lavatories located in guest rooms are considered to be private lavatories. Additionally, day use guests at the hotel should be included in the value for transient / visitor occupants. Per typical fixture use assumptions, this category of occupants assumes zero shower uses throughout the day. Example: 123-room hotelTotal Hotel Guests = 123*1.5 * 60%Total Hotel Guests = 111."

11/1/2011 ID# 100001069

Ashlee Paar Gensler
May 15 2012
Guest
46 Thumbs Up

#### FTE in a dormitory

we received feedback on a recent project that asks us to "distinguish between occupants and residents". the only occupants ARE residents.

We have indicated the resident count as the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. count (so as not to show 0 FTE) and also clarified that they are residents. This is clearyl not the right way based on the reviewer's request. Does anyone know how to properly indicate the FTE when they are all residents ?

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jul 01 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Ashelee, have you resolved this question and if so, can you share how?

I don't think residents are usually included in an FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. count, but I would have to hear more info from you on how you originally provided your FTEs, to understand what the reviewer was reacting to.

Jean Marais b.i.g. Bechtold DesignBuilder Expert Jul 06 2012 LEEDuser Member 10210 Thumbs Up

The way I read it, LEED says FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. and means FTE STAFF. Residents are treated seperately (see the Water Credits).

Daniela Castro Salgado LEED AP BD+C / Architect Edmonds International Ltd
Apr 16 2012
Guest
881 Thumbs Up

#### Determining default occupancy numbers

Would it be correct to use the "Warehouse, storage" gross square feet per occupant in the Reference Guide for mechanical spaces, storage rooms, loading areas and restrooms of a CS building?

David Posada Sustainability Manager, SS TAG member, GBD Architects Apr 18 2012 Guest 19734 Thumbs Up

That would work if the core and shell building is most likely to be used as a warehouse or storage building. If the building has one primary intended use, such as general office, or general retail it might be easier and more accurate to include the mechanical, storage, loading, and restroom areas with the office or retail areas and calculate the number of occupants based on the whole area.

The occupant density of those support areas depends on the kind of building use or program they support, and "gross square feet" per occupant is intended to address the whole building occupanty load including support spaces.

Do you have an idea of the most likely building use or uses? You could also assume a mix of uses, such as 30% general retail and 70% general office. If the building is 10,000 gsf, using the CS Appendix 1 of the Reference Guide you'd get 3000 gsf of retail with 6 employees and 23 transients, and 7000 gsf of office with 28 employees and 0 transients.

(It's odd they assume 0 transients/ visitors for general office; you can always be safe and assume a few transients... or assume that since not everyone is always in the office, it works out in the end.)

Daniela Castro Salgado LEED AP BD+C / Architect, Edmonds International Ltd Apr 23 2012 Guest 881 Thumbs Up

Thank you for your help David.
The building is mainly General Office (497150 gsf) with some retail in the lower floors (61950 gsf), however I was counting all the mentioned services (99372 gsf) separately.
I believe only storage rooms, reciclables storage and loading areas could count as warehouse right?
Thanks!!

Joel Cesare
Mar 13 2012
Guest
130 Thumbs Up

#### FTEs or Residents for Mixed-use residential project?

Our project is 4 floors: first floor with three commercial tenants and top 3 residential. The occupant numbers for the residential is straight-forward based on LEED default values. The tenants are unknown except we know one will be restaurant and two will be retail. We think the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. values for these spaces are straight-forward based on the default values listed in the reference guide appendix using occupants/sqft, including transients.

My question is how this needs to be reported. For the water use prerequisite, it should be split as residents for residential spaces and FTE for the commercial spaces, correct?

How does this need to be reported for the whole building energy simulation model for the EAp2, Minimum Energy Performance?

Do both of these forms simply take the data entered in the Project Information form?

Emily Catacchio Sustainability Specialist, Wight and Company Apr 10 2012 Guest 8930 Thumbs Up

Yes, both of those forms pull information from the Project Information form. Though occationally you may want to include a special circumstances narrative to deviate from them, this is rare. Anything highlighted in yellow on the latest versions of the Project Information forms gets auto-populated elsewhere.

Mar 13 2012
Guest
697 Thumbs Up

#### 7 Working days

Hi all,
We are working on a call-center office building. The employees will be working 7 days a week. with 3 shifts a day. We have a confusion with calculating the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. First we have a problem of the multi-shift overlap, how can it be calculated. Second, we have a problem for the employees not spending 40 hours per week as indicated in the definition of the FTE. Shall the 2 working days be considered as overtime occupants?
Awaiting you help.

Tyra Sorensen Apr 27 2012 LEEDuser Member 626 Thumbs Up

My understanding of this is to get the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.:
(# of staff * hours of shift * number of days)/40 = FTE
if you have shifts of different length, it still works, but how these all combine into the boxes on PI form 3 is bending my brain.

Feb 27 2012
Guest
697 Thumbs Up

#### FTE MULTIPLE SHIFTS

We are pursuing LEED NC 2009. We are designing a call centre office building which will be operated 24 hours on three consecutive 8 hours shift work. The total building users in one shift is 3090 persons with No transients, visitors or residents in the building. Please note that consecutive shift would not start until the previous shift finishes.
When we attempt to calculate the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. and Daily occupancy – things get extremely confusing, How do we determine this in this case? Can someone help me in this calculation
Is shift overlap should be considered for calculating the required number of Bike racks, changing rooms and showers, and if yes do we count the entire second shift or just a percentage of it ???? (Remember that no overlap in work time, but maybe second shift employees reach building before earlier shift employees leave,,, suppose they arrive with bikes)
Does anyone have similar experience with such complex occupancy projects.

Susan Walter Specifications Director, Populous Mar 13 2012 LEEDuser Expert 18786 Thumbs Up

Assuming that for each shift all employees are working 8 hours, then your daily FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. is 3 * 3,090 = 9,270. Total peak shift is the overlap between the two highest shifts. So if the day and afternoon shift have more people in them than the evening shift then use the day and afternoon shift for the peak calculation. Yes, you will have to add more bike racks to the project but you may not have to add more showers (try a narrative explaining people shower after their ride).

Diaa Madkour Architect Mar 14 2012 Guest 697 Thumbs Up

Susan. thanks for your reply, we still have a problem that we discovered the call center office will be working 7 days a week, how would that affect the calculations? regarding that FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. defined as working hours 40 hours a week.

Susan Walter Specifications Director, Populous Mar 14 2012 LEEDuser Expert 18786 Thumbs Up

Divide the number of hours in a week by 40 hours to get the number of FTEs. If this is an anticipated figure (if we build it, they will come) then use it but also explain how you arrived at your figures in the preliminary forms.

It helps to create a small spreadsheet.

Steven Er May 11 2012 Guest 311 Thumbs Up

Hi Susan, i agree with your interpretations on FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. determination based on sum of all shift employees in a multiple shifts case.

LEED BDC reference guide, page 53 states "In buildings with multiple shifts, use only the highest-volume shift in the calculation but consider shift overlap when determining peak building use". LEED online PI Form 3, under complex occupancy states "FTE is FTE during the regularly occurring moment with highest volume of full-time and part-time occupants".

Both of this statement confusing the determination of FTE in a multiple shifts case. What is your interpretation on this?

Jiri Dobias Oct 25 2012 LEEDuser Member 1592 Thumbs Up

I am not sure if Suzan is correct. According her estimation you would design bicycle racks for 9,720 employees but that is not correct. The peak situation will be when two shifts are changing and therefore you need to design the bicycle racks for 2 x 3,090.
LEED reference guide, page 53 states "buildings with multiple shifts, use only the highest-volume shift in the calculation but consider shift overlap when determining peak building use". From my understanding, you would take only one shift with the highest volume for FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. calculation (but with overlap with second shift).
For water calculation, you will have to consider different estimation though.

What do you think?

Elke Malleier Dr., Sustainability & Green Building Consultant Mar 06 2013 Guest 391 Thumbs Up

For me, this sounds quite reasonable concerning SSc4.2.
In PIf3 the definition for 'Total building users at peak moment' says
"Equals the sum of occupants and transients during the regularly occurring moment with the highest volume of total users."

Augusto Velazquez aceava
Jan 25 2012
LEEDuser Member
333 Thumbs Up

#### FTE calculation for conference rooms

My project has five conference rooms that will not be used frequently. How should I go about calculating the amount of visitors for them, and how should peak visitors be estimated in this case?

David Posada Sustainability Manager, SS TAG member, GBD Architects Feb 02 2012 Guest 19734 Thumbs Up

It's up to the project team to decide the most accurate way to determine FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories., program so there's no set rule. Usually the client provides an estimate of the total number of visitors for an office based on their planning or programming. You can make an educated guess and verify with the client if that sounds reasonable based on their needs and experience.

Lawrence Lile Chief Engineer, Lile Engineering LLC Jul 23 2012 LEEDuser Member 2410 Thumbs Up

I have this situation, and relied on the management to give an estimate. They said that the conference room would be rented at 50% of capacity two days a week for 4 hours, so a 200 person conference room would be 200*50%*4*2/40 or 20 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. Peak calculatuions are simply the seating capacity of the room, because eventually there will be a standing-room-only crowd.

Sanghong Han
Dec 19 2011
Guest
99 Thumbs Up

#### How to use AGMBC 2005

Hi.
I'm LEED AP but don't have experience for LEED certifications. This is my first time.
I'm working on LEED certification for US army project.
For example, project consists of 4 buildings : two offices bldg & two storage.

I wonder this project can certify a group of new buildings as a package and be rated as a package and only one rating received.

Accroding to LEED NC Application Guide for Multiple Buildings and On Campus Building Projects(AGMBC, 2005), EQ credit require every building must meet credit requirement independently.

Storages are considered FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. is less than 1, so I think they are needed to earn EQ credit. But I think the other credit categories(EA, MR..etc.) can be applied to them.

Is it possible to register project grouping all buildings above? or group only two office building?

This project is applied LEED ver 2.2, not ver.3. US army want LEED ver 2.2, because US army evaluate this with ver 2.2.

I heard about there is no MPR(Minimum Program Requirement) in ver2.2. So I don't know how to grouped these buildings.

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Feb 17 2012 LEEDuser Moderator

Sanghong, sorry for the delayed reply. Please refer to our AGMBC forum for more information and as another place to post. However, buildings are not awarded LEED certification as a group, unless you are pursuing LEED-ND. The certifications are individual. and the AGMBC gives you guidance on navigating campus issues.

Gary Mosesman
Sep 20 2011
Guest
115 Thumbs Up

#### Leed 2009 Standalone Auditorium FTE

We are designing a standalone auditorium addition to an existing high school facility using LEED 2009. We are not disturbing or renovating any of the existing school facility.
The addition includes a lobby space, auditorium, stage, black box theater, and a control room, bathrooms, dressing rooms and storage. The seating capacity of the auditorium is 800 people. As this is a standalone project using the student population does not seem to apply as the facility will be used only for assemblies and afterhours community use.
When we attempt to calculate the FTE, Transients, and Daily occupancy – things get extremely confusing. The FTE for staff is clear because we have owner information, but when it comes to computing the peak and daily average of occupancy for both Visitors and Students, it’s a haze. How do we determine this? Does anyone have similar experience with auditorium additions?

Thanks,
Gary

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Nov 13 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

Gary, I would look to the school for help with this. Do they currently have an auditorium that they can tell you about -- are there classes in it, events, how many people, etc.?

Veronika Sundberg Environmental Engineer - Certification Skanska Sverige AB
Jun 13 2011
Guest
1567 Thumbs Up

#### FTE/Residence number for CHILDREN at a hospital project

FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories./Residence number for CHILDREN at a hospital project
0Vote up!In the FTE calculation for our Hospital project we do not address the numbers of children that are visiting the hospital.
All inpatients are considered Residential and the all outpatients are calculated as visitors.

Should we consider the number of children visiting the hospital in some way and in some calculations (e.g. water calculations?) ?

Any input would be great,
Thanks /Veronika

Susan Walter Specifications Director, Populous Jun 13 2011 LEEDuser Expert 18786 Thumbs Up

All visitors should be accounted for, especially in the water calculations, and this would include children. I think the key in complex project occupancies is to break it down further and upload your spreadsheet with your credit documentation. You may find that separate fixture groups for inpatients and outpatients the better way to go. We breakdown each inpatient unit and every outpatient clinic or department in a spreadsheet. Then we can discuss the visitors each area gets with the user group to get the best information regarding visitors. For example, visitors to pediatric units are much higher than for adult med/surg.

Veronika Sundberg Environmental Engineer - Certification, Skanska Sverige AB Jun 13 2011 Guest 1567 Thumbs Up

Thank you, I totally agree.

We have created an excel-spreadsheet, including all information from the Credit template on LEED-online, where we will do our calculations like you wrote. Do you mean we could upload this on LEED-online instead of transferring it in to the Credit template?

/Veronika

Susan Walter Specifications Director, Populous Jun 13 2011 LEEDuser Expert 18786 Thumbs Up

No, you'll have to transfer your numbers to the credit template but you'll upload this as back up. Usually, the numbers look a little strange to a reviewer and the back up will clear things up for them. Add a short narrative about your general assumptions.

Veronika Sundberg Environmental Engineer - Certification, Skanska Sverige AB Jun 14 2011 Guest 1567 Thumbs Up

ok, thank you!

David Mirabile LEED AP, BD+C
Jun 06 2011
Guest
968 Thumbs Up

#### Daily Average Building Occupants for WEc3

How would you calculate your Daily Average Occupancy (for transients)? After showing our calcs for FTEs and Peak users, we received a review comment stating "It is unclear if the daily average building occupants have been included in the calculations for this credit, as the provided calculations describe the peak building users." TECHNICAL ADVICE: "Revise the calculations to include the daily average building occupants."

We have our FTEs nailed down, but per the owner we will have 50 people for 2 meetings per month with each lasting approximately 2 hours each and 25 students for 2 classes per week with each lasting appox. 2 hours. How would you calc each of these? I have asked under the WEc3 credit without any luck.

Melissa Wrolstad Senior Project Manager, CodeGreen Solutions Jun 08 2011 LEEDuser Member 2597 Thumbs Up

David,

Take the most conservative approach you can with your occupancy count that will not affect credits that depend on occupancy counts such as the bikes + water credits. If I were you, as a first step I would figure out exactly how many more FTEs and transients your credits can "handle". For instance, if your project put in 25 bikes racks and your initial occupancy count was 400 (FTE's + transients) - you could handle 100 more FTE / transients per day (500 FTE / transients * 5% = 25 bike racks.)

Once you've done this for all of the credits that are based on occupancy - pick the most conservative scenario that falls within what your project can "handle". A very conservative method you might want to pursue is to count the 50 visitors as daily transients and count the students as 13 FTEs (4 hours of class per day - converts to 1/2 an FTE each.)

The least conservative approach you would want to take is to count the visitors as 50 visitors * 2 meetings per month / 22 business days per month (or however many days your building will be open per month) = ~5 transients per day. The students you can count as 25 students * 2 classes per week * 2 hours / 5 days of classes per week (or whatever the case might be) / 8 hrs per day = ~3 FTEs.

I hope that is helpful - good luck!

Nilo Regojo
May 11 2011
LEEDuser Member
222 Thumbs Up

#### FTE Calculation for Movie Theatres

We are calculating FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for a 2,500 seat, 14 screen movie theater. There will be 20 Full Time Employees but the number of patrons (Peak Transients) will vary greatly. Does the FTE calculation, for purposes of SSc4.3, assume the peak load of 2,500 patrons plus the 20 employees?

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. May 20 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

Nilo, which option are you pursuing for SSc4.3? From what you describe, I doubt that you need to calculate FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for that credit.

Melissa Wrolstad Senior Project Manager CodeGreen Solutions
Mar 02 2011
LEEDuser Member
2597 Thumbs Up

#### Age and FTE

We are working on a childcare center. How old does a child have to be to count as an FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.? Many of the children at the center will be infants who cannot ride bikes or use water fixtures.

Thanks-
Melissa

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 11 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

Melissa, for Schools SSc4.2, only children in older than Grade 3 or older are counted for bicycle storage.

For water fixtures, that seems too old to me, but I'm not aware of any specific cut-off that has been established. I think you should evaluate based on your population.

Let us know how you proceed.

Kyle Wang
Feb 25 2011
Guest
94 Thumbs Up

#### Airport visitors FTEs

I am trying to calculate the transient visitors FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories., we used the flight schedule to estimate total daily visitors/travelers. When calculate the FTEs, should i base it on hours of operations, and divide it by 16, or divide it by 8 like you would normally with FTE calcs. Please advise!!!

Kyle

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Mar 11 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

Kyle, FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. is defined based on an 8-hour shift. If the building is open longer, you have more FTEs, not a different definition of FTE.

Make sense?

Carly Ruggieri Senior Sustainability Consultant Steven Winter Associates, Inc.
Jan 10 2011
Guest
1102 Thumbs Up

#### Determining visitors in residential condominiums

Has anyone found any guidance or formulas for determining peak and daily average visitors for a residential project? There will be approximately 200 residents in a planned condominium tower pursuing LEED-NC 2009, but I'm uncertain how to best determine the number of daily and peak visitors for this building type. Any suggestions or past experience would be much appreciated!

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Jan 20 2011 LEEDuser Moderator

I have heard people talk about parking someone in the lobby of a similar project for a period of time to count people. The difficulty with any formulas is the level of variation you could see, for so many reasons. Picking another project nearby with a similar population may be more reliable.

Michael Davey Feb 24 2011 Guest 72 Thumbs Up

On the new LEED PI Form 3 for NC It says not to list residents in the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. category. Does that mean that a resident does not have an FTE?

David Posada Sustainability Manager, SS TAG member, GBD Architects Feb 25 2011 Guest 19734 Thumbs Up

There's a place to enter a value for the number of residents below Table PIf3.3 labeled "Total number of residents." It might be on the second page of the form, so it's easy to miss. This value gets carried over to forms such as WEp1 in the column for "Residents."

Bonnie Chiu Jun 29 2011 Guest 178 Thumbs Up

I have the same question as Michael. I'm working on a dormitory building. On Pl Form 3, do you enter "0" in the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. table and simply enter the number of residents in the "Total number of residents" entry box?

Susan Holt Dec 20 2012 Guest 41 Thumbs Up

I am also working on a dormitory and would like to know how to calculate the number of transients that should be considered for this project type. I have not found any guidance on how to estimate this. Our occupancy counts for our design submittal included FTEs (Staff) and Residents, but no transients. Our review team commented that we needed to include transients in the occupancy count. Any advice would be appreciated!

Veronika Sundberg Environmental Engineer - Certification Skanska Sverige AB
Dec 20 2010
Guest
1567 Thumbs Up

#### FTE for LEEDv3 NC applied on a hospital

Hi, we have a hospital project going for LEED v3 NC certification. Most parts of the hospital have rooms for clinical short time visits by patient. However, other parts of the hospital are designed with inpatient rooms for patient that need to stay for some days. Should the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. calculation only be based on the number of staff? The credits that will be affected in our projects are mainly SS and WE credits. Could it be a variation between the different patient groups? Some of the patients calculated as FTE and some as visitors. Thanks in advance

Susan Walter Specifications Director, Populous Dec 20 2010 LEEDuser Expert 18786 Thumbs Up

Veronika,

For our hospital projects we do not include the inpatients in with the FTEs. Instead, we make use the the 'Other' columns for inpatients. The outpatients are considered visitors and are included there. For inpatients, we calculate the total daily use and not view it from a 8 hour work shift. This means that we account for total staff over 24 hours which can look a little strange at first. I believe that you can calculate the numbers based on an ALOS but we choose not to do that. The projects we have are hitting capacity and have a high ALOS compared to the industry. Since the after construction rate will obviously change, we choose to calculate based on 'worst' case.

Susan
Wilmot/Sanz

Veronika Sundberg Environmental Engineer - Certification, Skanska Sverige AB Dec 21 2010 Guest 1567 Thumbs Up

Thanks a lot for your quick reply, but I do still have some problems regarding register the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. I do not have a ‘Other’ column in the Project Information Form 3 - Occupant and Usage data.
I can only type in my FTE and then in another table, transients/visitors and retail (that I can use for outpatients). But the problem with inpatient is still not solved. Have you done some special registration or how come you have this ‘Other’ column.
Could you also please explain ALOS, that is new for me. Thanks, Veronika

Susan Walter Specifications Director, Populous Dec 21 2010 LEEDuser Expert 18786 Thumbs Up

Sorry Veronika, I had been working on a v2.2 project and in that form there is an 'other' category. In v3, you have 4 categories to identify occupants. FTEs are staff and is where we normally quantify the regular water use of all staff in the building, Visitors/Students where we account for visitors and outpatients, Retail, and Residents where we account for inpatients. You may choose to separate out your visitors from your outpatients but our clients don't report a big difference between outpatients and visitors so we group them together. The WE form allows you to call out fixture groups and this is where you can break out things like direct care givers handwashing patterns from regular bathroom useage. Or account for unique toileting needs. You could also lump all toilet fixture use together. What ever fits your project. Just be consistent and explain your rationale when you have the ability to do that. The form will make assumptions for you but you can change them. The 'calculate' button revises the percentage saved.

ALOS = Average Length of Stay and it measures how many inpatients a facility has on a daily basis. Your client should be able to give you this data.

Hope this helps.

Susan

John Albrecht Director of LEED Services Sieben Energy Assoc.
Nov 15 2010
Guest
2453 Thumbs Up

#### FTE references within CI

For comparison purposes (with CS), I am trying to determine how many CI credits rely on the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. It seems like the credit requirements of SSc3.2 and SSc3.3 are a function of the FTE, and that the WE credits (including SSc1) reference FTE in the template's water efficiency calculation. Beyond that and PiF3, I could not find FTE specifically mentioned in the reference guide, rating system, or templates, and I had the feeling the FTE was more interconnected with cedits than that. What am I missing or is it just too late tonight? Thanks, John

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Nov 15 2010 LEEDuser Moderator

John, I can't think of anything you missed.

David Posada Sustainability Manager, SS TAG member, GBD Architects Nov 15 2010 Guest 19734 Thumbs Up

The only other things I can think of that are related to FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. occupancy are the credits EQc6.1 Controllability of Systems, Lighting, and EQc6.2 Controllability of Systems, Thermal Comfort but these don't appear to pull FTE numbers from the PiF3 form.

Grace Ming Senior ESD Consultant
Aug 05 2010
LEEDuser Member
862 Thumbs Up

#### FTE calculation for Hotel occupancy

Hello,
I need some help with defining FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. for hotel occupancy.
1) How do we determine the FTE occupancy for hotel?
2) When we assume the hotel guests as the transient occupants, what is the area per transient occupants for the hotel guest to be used. I couldn't find any guideline in Appendix 1 of the LEED 2009 reference guide.
3) when we calculate the minimum number of bicycle racks for this project, we can exclude the transient FTE for hotel guest. There is very little or no chance that the hotel guests will bring along the bicycle.
Appreciate any suggestion. Many thanks in advance!

Grace

David Posada Sustainability Manager, SS TAG member, GBD Architects Aug 08 2010 Guest 19734 Thumbs Up

Grace, for hotels you need to make some assumptions that may come from the business or operations plan:

1) FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. is based on expected number of employees, so your most accurate staff numbers would hopefully come from the client/owner. You may need to compile your own spreadsheet to summarize the different shifts and convert any part-time staff to the Full Time Equivalent. I believe the Reference Guide tells us to use the FTE number for the busiest shift, but we'll want to confirm that.

2) The Appendix 1 is useful for estimating occupancies in Core and Shell buildings or spaces where occupancy can easily be estimated based on industry averages for use by area. Hotels don't really work that way, except possibly the conference or meeting areas. For your hotel, find out from the management if they expect 1 person per room or "key", 1.5 per room/key, or whatever. If the hotel does have conference, meeting, or restaurant areas that serve the public in addition to the reserved guests, presumably the hotel management would have made assumptions of expected occupancy or annual averages for the number of public visitors.

3) I'd agree you can probably exclude bike racks for guests.

Grace Ming Senior ESD Consultant Aug 20 2010 LEEDuser Member 862 Thumbs Up

Thanks David....

Amy Calvanese
Apr 19 2010
Guest
57 Thumbs Up

#### Calculating FTEs

I understand if a transient is coming one hour per day like the example above, but what if they are only coming once a week and working 8 hours? How is that calculated?

And does two part time employees that are in the office three days a week, just count as two people toward the FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.?

And what do summer interns count as?

Thanks so much for your help!
Amy

David Posada Sustainability Manager, SS TAG member, GBD Architects Apr 20 2010 Guest 19734 Thumbs Up

FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. numbers are often based on averages and assumptions, but the key as Sherri mentioned is to distinguish between regular occupants such as staff, and transients/ visitors. These two categories are treated differently in two credits: the water use calcs and the bike racks & showers calcs.

For regular occupants, two part-time employees each working three, eight-hour days could converted to FTE thus: 2 x 3 x 8 = 48 occupant hours per week, and then 48 / 40 = 9.6 occupant hours per day, and then 9.6 / 8 = 1.2 FTE. You might average the summer interns over the course of the year, or use the season with the highest FTE as your expected occupancy.

Similarly for transients, use the time of day or season with the peak number of visitors to the building.

Erik Jertson Designer, International Architects Atelier Aug 03 2010 Guest 158 Thumbs Up

David, 48 / 40 ≠ 9.6 but equals 1.2. I believe you meant to do 48 occupant hours per week / 5 days per week = 9.6 occupant hours per day. Then 9.6 / 8 = 1.2 FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. The short cut is to take 48 / 40 as there are 40 hours in the work week (8 x 5).

I have a similar situation on a project that has12 full-time occupants working 12 hours a day 6 days a week. But LEED only considers an 8 hour day so an additional 4 hours per person per day has to be accounted for. My calculation is 12 x 12 x 6 = 864 / 40 = 21.6 FTE. Is this correct?

David Posada Sustainability Manager, SS TAG member, GBD Architects Aug 03 2010 Guest 19734 Thumbs Up

Looks right to me - thanks for checking the math!

Erik Jertson Designer, International Architects Atelier Aug 03 2010 Guest 158 Thumbs Up

No problem. Its a confusing topic, I still don't know if I have my head wrapped around it.

Does anyone know why the LEED form doesn't let you change the avg. hours / week from 8 to the actual time worked for full-time occupants? Again in my situation with 12 people working 12 hours per day 6 days a week I have to fudge the number of people to arrive at the correct FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories.. It seems like the form over simplifies the calculation.

Tristan Roberts LEED AP BD+C, Editorial Director – LEEDuser, BuildingGreen, Inc. Aug 20 2010 LEEDuser Moderator

Hm, not sure why this happens. That's frustrating.

Sherry Bonelli LEED Project Manager/Consultant BudSprout LLC -- SucceedAtLEED.com
Dec 09 2009
Guest
906 Thumbs Up

#### Calculating FTEs

Hi, Kim,

It looks like you’re on the right track with your FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. calculations. For transient occupants (students, customers, visitors, delivery people, etc.) you would use the number of transients that occupy your building during your peak period.

It’s important that you carefully review the 2009 LEED Reference Guide as you’re completing your submittal templates. The Reference Guide offers you very detailed information on how to correctly use your FTE numbers to complete the template’s calculations.

For more information check out “Make Calculating FTEs Less Confusing” at www.SucceedAtLEED.com.

Good luck with your LEED project!

Sherry Bonelli, LEED Green Associate
LEED Project Manager
www.SucceedAtLEED.com

Eric Shamp Principal, Ecotype Consulting Feb 27 2011 LEEDuser Expert 947 Thumbs Up

So, if I understand correctly, we have staff that shows up at the beginning of the day, hop into a fleet vehicle and take off all day, return at the end of the day, and go home. It's an unusual case, but I'm not sure it would be correct to use the same FTEFull-time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 8 hours a day (40 hours a week) in the project building. Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per day divided by 8 (or hours per week divided by 40). Transient Occupants can be reported as either daily totals or as part of the FTE. Residential occupancy should be estimated based on the number and size of units. Core and Shell projects should refer to the default occupancy table in the Reference Guide appendix. All occupant assumptions must be consistent across all credits in all categories. values across all credits. It seems appropriate to treat these folks as part-time staff for calculating water reduction, but for the alternative transportation credits, they shouldn't be treated any differently than someone who works their 8 hours in the office. The use patterns for parking, bike storage, and shower rooms should be the same for both full-time on-site and off-site staff members.

Perhaps the project FTE (that you enter into the PI forms) should include on- and off-site staff, counting hours worked whether in or out of the office. Then, in the WEp1 form, establish a separate fixture group for off-site staff that better reflects their actual time spent on site. You'd want to include a narrative clearly explaining your rationale.

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Feb 11 2016